#realmadrid #barcelona #messi
Suscríbete a La Gambeta ⚽

La Gambeta Original📹:
Gambeta – Sports & Gaming⚽🎮:
La Gambeta Mexico 🇲🇽


Puedes comprar todas las camisetas oficiales de fútbol en futbolmania, la tienda de las mejores Camisetas de fútbol – Devolución gratis. Camisetas de fútbol baratas 2019 2020 spain, Equipaciones de fútbol baratas para hombre y niño

The Last Trumpet [A Prophetic Poem: now in Spanish and English]

Part One

In Winter’s fog appeared the Christ,

With thorns and crown and frosted light.

For several months, like Job I cried,

As visions came like moving tides.

By providence biblical rhyme

They came, one by one, future time.

His hand was bright, His palm I saw,

Every print was visible-now!

It lit the room, filled all the space,

Filled my body, Lit my face…

Death was won, osmosis with Light,

Future sorrow was dead as night.

There was no hedge around me now…

A spinning wheel with pottery,

Did God step back I cried «O Lord!!»

Was this the steps and salvation’s door?

O Mother Shipton of long ago,

Witch, prophetess, your words come true.

Part Two

A jackal turned into a horse,

Could famine be its name? Of course!

A double-edged sword stood tall and bright,

Three times I saw its brilliant light.

Could not this be Eden’s door?

Salvation, judgment, swords of war?

A mask that cries a joker’s death

Gives a taste of Shakespeare’s Hamlet,

An unclean spirit circles its brim

Do they watch gthe wound upon the head?

Joker, joker, O mask of death,

Tarnished copper is upon your head.

In my anguish and trying tears,

The Lord spoke softly to my ears,

«Like David, you are after my heart,»

And I cried-in pretense-Ah, me!»

And I heard a stern utterance:

«Is this not so?» Yes, it’s true.

Oh angel, angel, how I try…

To be like Paul, and still alive,

And to my earthly, human ears

An angel spoke with soften tears,

«Saint Paul was human, just like you;

And your limitations are you.»

I’ve heard…no tears in heaven,

And thought: «What of my friends in hell?»

Then, within a mist of sacred dew,

I became awe stricken…alive.

I now knew, of the wonder it is to be

A touch of God’s eternity.

Visions come and yes, visions go

Yet weeping seems to be my goal,

I cry, «O Lord, give me peace!»

Two times I rest within His grace.

And like a vacuum it starts again,

Like in the book of Revelation:

One side is black, the other white;

Night and day unbalanced light.

An ancient battle now appears

Swords and soldiers fighting everywhere.

A black hand covers my dream…

Am I not to see the suffering?

Judea, Judea, is it not you?

The Battle of A.D. 70, I choose;

The mask again, warnings devise

The Prince of Darkness: out of sight.

A copper bullet, rocket speed,

Faith, faith it’s headed at me!

«And young men shall see visions,»

Cried the prophets of long ago:

Daniel, St. John, David Wilkerson…

Have you not witness them too?

Ruin awaits a word asleep:

Prophets of old, time is ripe.

Panic I see, and buildings fall.

Is it my face I witness now?

Beside a stone wall I shift and rest:

Pre-trials, earthquakes: time is short.

Trumpets, trumpets, where are you now?

Time is winding up for all….

Like molten metal in bowl

And poured to earth like plagues of gold;

Stands a husky skeleton and tall:

Babylon, Daniel’s Beast, the toes?

Oh, but you will fall, quickly now–

Hollywood cracked, Sodom’s fall!

Skulls, spirits, ships at sea;

Huddled demon standing, watching:

The Capitol, Cathedral, One?

Seattle, San Francisco, Why?

Landmarks: Florida entrenched-war or play?

White capes, death shapes, saints walk by.

Powerful looking, not feminine

Knelt the Savior in the Garden Grove,

His eyes piercing in thought.

I knew He was the Christ, confirmed,

And the spirit in me was prompted by Him.

Tarnished baked skin by the sun

He is beard, admirably kept…fine wool;

His hair-not long, like paintings shown,

But light-dark brown, like the profile of Psalms.

Unclean spirits circled the air;

No distraction, steadfast, He was in Prayer.

Avoid this vision if you can!

Christ on the Cross-Deboned like fish:

Ugly as sin, my body’s shocked,

My mind is pulsing, vomiting….

Now I know the price He paid;

No man has ever been seen this way.

Odd-looking space crafts, labs, all eerie;

Machinery unknown to me,

Demon possessed, falling from space–

Our earthly atmosphere defaced.

And the prophet prophesied:

«There will be strange things…in the sky.»

A pale arm-dreadfully thin…falling;

‘Tis called Pestilence, deadly sin:

The fourth horse of Apocalypse,

And the Lord spoke: «Repent, repent.»

And the world shall taste uncouth rime=

Ah, that is the False Prophet’s time.

Then I saw a High Priest, of sorts,

With a robe of precious stones,

Purple, prayerful-with jeering tones;

What church? Nimrod! Satan’s Prince?

«The wheat and tars shall grow together,»

Cries the Rapture and heaven’s quest….

Then I saw an eagle, a dragon–

The eagle hurt, falling form the sky!

Dragon-with a grin, abnormal–

Teeth like sharks, moping, passing by.

Oh! Darkness will befall the earth,

The Abyss is open 12:03, the curse.

Visions come and visions go,

The spiritual world becoming real;

Current events-unraveling time,

Hell’s Abyss is alive!

Symbolic signs of Revelation,

Are but future Tribulation.

«Run to the mountains and the dens,»

Cries the scriptures and friend;

For death will have its sting to see

The latter days are nearing.

Reality with life’s visions

Are witnessing Globalism.

Was it hell or the «Lake of Fire?»

Prophecy, reality, ‘tis true.

As I viewed this vision, I wasn’t told–

He was preserved, consumed, and froze.

O but a joke, scorn, or jest

Is a far cry from this quest!

Oh, but this age in which we live,

Truly, this era is different, we sense;

A polarization of all things,

Neutrality doesn’t exist–

Time, relativity, the present;

Satan will soon wage war in Heaven.

The universe, like a body of cells,

Cascading like the gates of hell.

And so the science of physics

Whispers to thermodynamics:

«God’s spiritual breathe gives life…

Like the cell that subsides and dies.»

I saw Egypt, Russia, U.S.A.,

In different ways and stages, readying!

And Ezekiel cried from Scripture:

«Fire rains down on the coastlands.»

Israel, Jerusalem–You!

Two wars: China and the far North.

Two planets close to each other I see,

One like our moon the other like Mars?

A third object a comet-speeding

Through its channel, it’s leaving.

Another object, smoothly carved,

Headed towards earth’s atmosphere.

Disaster rides the horse of red:

Three times I saw Washington’s death–

Buildings, houses being attacked,

Jets, paratroopers, ablaze!

There on the coast sits Master Frog,

A satanic sprit, New York’s god.

A roaring jet around the globe,

A wounded eagle, falling slow,

A Dragon standing, teeth like sharks

Great Babylon’s in the dark.

The seeds of what shall surely be–

Daniel saw him too–the Lamb-beast.

Call now, but who will answer thee?

Control room, people, and clouds, smoke

Speeding missile (dust, hurricane);

Throwing earth like loose hay.

Two crowns, wooden bowls, long table,

An upheaval in nature–God’s anger.

The end of a serpent’s tail: shark?

A scorpion-like extension,

Flashes of faces I see, a demon,

A huge being, soaked: Neptune?

Prophecy: a beast from the sea;

And from the Abyss, tails that sting.

A mountain shows its mighty face

A pyramid, ship, fire, disgrace!

Is Egypt rising like the Nile?

In a political world like an unfed child.

Judgment bowls, with balancing scales–

One for man, and Satan’s Child?

I see a Hawk…of Palestine?

His iris is a pitiless, dark design–

A bird of prey, I am told;

«Look to the South,» cries the prophet Job.

Nations of prey, where is your light?

O Israel, you are their plight.

Angry faces that seem to die,

Four faces in torment they cry,

A wound upon a shaven head

Sectioned in four, the center spot…dread.

Hoof beats of apocalypse scorn,

Gabriel stands close to his horn.

In a moment of a vision

There they sat…ah, in deaden pews,

Indifferent, in a faithless church,

People sleeping as in a trance.

So it is written of-end days,

Apostasy–the Christian ways.

«In whose hand is the club of wrath?»

Cries the word from Isaiah:

Whose purpose is to destroy?

Who can shift nations like toys?

And the prophet cries from the past:

The nations are his to leave and cast.

Then I asked with deep affair,

To grant two visions to a friend;

The Jews were held behind glass doors–

Bargaining, readying: a black book.

And the prophet cried long ago,

«It is time; Let my people go!»

And in the jungle, a puzzle–

Ten pieces, animals, different sizes;

The riddle was all put together,

Except for one piece called the beast.

The all pieces become alive

«Set hour house in order,» Isaiah cries!

I saw her cast into a bed–

Jezebel, Jezebel, I dread;

Dabble not with her system, but heed:

Darkness, the last trumpet, history.

Tears, let him hear who has an ear,

A child in prayer, and a soldiers gear.

Am I alive, in a womb…Dead?

In the sky by an angels breast?

Smoke, smoke, lots of smoke I see:

Jerusalem’s looking at me.

You’re illuminated? The White Knight

Untouchable in this darken night.

Egypt, Paris, fields of wheat;

Spacecraft, falling machinery;

Life, or death, an egg in a hand:

Starvation, war, global plans….

The bowl of judgment has arrived–

Anger and plagues are inside.

Florida, you’re dusty and dark…?

China, you’re in the news…:

People reading papers (a world event),

Poland’s red tapestry, Java, etc.

Interplanetary gloom-woe!

The blood of Armageddon.

Part Three

And now a verse of present rhyme,

The Middle East is losing time;

Believe in the Lord…His prophecies.

Do not shun them deliberately.

And from the Hawk and ships at sea,

The thunder of war is readying!

Behold! Tonight I see the Christ,

With an aging beard that wasn’t right.

Had I not been warned years ago?

Do not tread the ground that’s old.

Then I saw a Hawk, descending,

Claws, wings, expanding, readying,

And yes, I asked for prophecy,

A sign that all would know, I believe;

The shroud, the shroud: three times I see,

The Shroud of Turin a mystery.

Birth pains of Apocalypse, I see,

An eagle stunned (the U.S.A.),

A woman, standing by a desert…Why!

Eight Angel, Israel…let her by.

Visions come and visions go, be blessed;

Revelation declares this so…


Translated by Nancy Penaloza

La Última Trompeta

Un Poema Profético

Parte uno

En la neblina invernal apareció Cristo,

Con espinas y corona, y luz opaca.

Por muchos meses, como Job yo clamé

Mientras las visiones venían como mareas.

Por providencial orden bíblico

Ellas vendrán, una a una, en el futuro.

Su mano era brillante, yo vi sus palmas,

¡Cada huella estaba visible-ahora!

Esto ilumino el cuarto, lleno todo el espacio,

Lleno mi cuerpo, iluminó mi rostro.

La muerte fue ganada, penetró con fuego,

Sufrimientos futuros muertos como la noche.

No hubo ventaja alrededor mío ahora…

Una torno de hilado con alfarería,

¿Retrocedió Dios? Yo grite «OH Señor».

¿Fueron estos los pasos y la puerta de la salvación?

Parte dos

El chacal se convirtió en caballo,

¿Podría ser la hambruna su nombre? ¡Por supuesto!

Una espada con doble filo permaneció alta y brillante,

Tres veces yo vi su luz brillante.

¿No Podría ser ésta la puerta del Edén?

¿Salvación, sentencia, espadas de guerra?

Una mascara que llora la muerte del payaso

Da un sabor de Hamlet de shakespeare,

Un espíritu impuro circula su tope

¿Observan ellos la herida sobre la cabeza?

Payaso, payaso, o mascara de la muerte,

El cobre deslucido esta sobre tu cabeza.

En mi angustia y lágrimas desapercibidas,

El señor habló suavemente a mis oídos,

«Como David, tu estas después de mi corazón»

Y yo grite- en pretensión-¡»Ah, yo»!

Y yo oí una palabra severa:

¿»No es esto así»? Si, es verdad.

OH ángel, ángel, como trato…

De ser como Pablo, y todavía vivir,

Y para mis terrenales, oídos humanos

Un ángel hablo con lágrimas enternecedoras,

«San Pablo era humano, justo como tu;

Y tus limitaciones son tuyas».

Yo he oído, ningunas lágrimas en el cielo,

Y pensé; ¿»Qué de mis amigos en el infierno»?

Luego, entre una niebla de roció sagrado

Yo llegué a sobrecogerme afligido–vivo.

Ahora yo se, de las maravillas de ser

Un toque de la eternidad de Dios.

Visiones vienen y si, visiones van

Aun el llanto parece ser mi meta

Yo clamo, «OH señor, dame paz»

Dos veces yo reposé dentro de su gracia

Y como un vació esto empieza otra vez

Como en el libro de las revelaciones:

Un lado es negro y el otro blanco;

La noche y el día desequilibraron la luz.

Una batalla antigua ahora aparece

Espadas y soldados que luchan por todas partes.

La mano negra cubre mis sueños…

¿No veré yo el sufrimiento?

¿Judea, Judea, no eres tu?

La batalla del 70 antes de Cristo, yo decido;

La mascara nuevamente, dispositivo de alarma

El príncipe de la oscuridad: Fuera de la vista.

Una bala de cobre, a la velocidad de un cohete,

¡»Confianza, confianza esto esta dirigiéndose a mi!»

«Y los jóvenes verán las visiones»

Clamaron los profetas de hace tiempo:

Daniel, san Juan, David Wilkerson..

¿No los han presenciado también?

Las ruinas esperan una palabra dormida:

Profetas de la antigüedad, el tiempo es oportuno.

Pánico veo, y edificaciones desmoronadas.

¿Es este mi rostro yo atestiguo ahora?

Al lado de una pared de piedra me desplazo y descanso:

Antes del juicio, terremotos: el tiempo es corto.

Trompetas, trompetas, ¿»Donde están Uds. Ahora»?

El tiempo esta concluyendo para todos…

Como metal derretido en un tazón

Y vertido en la tierra como peste de oro;

Permanece un ronco y alto esqueleto:

Babilonia, la bestia de Daniel, ¿La alerta?

OH, pero tú caerás, rápidamente ahora-

Hollywood agrietado, la caída de Sodoma!

Esqueletos, espíritus, barcos del mar;

Grupo de demonios permanecen, esperando:

El capitolio, la Catedral, ¿uno?

¿Seattle, san Francisco, ¿porque?

Lugares reconocidos: Florida atrincherada-¿guerra o juego?

Capas blancas, sombras de muerte, santos pasando de largo.

Mirada poderosa, no femenina

Arrodillado el salvador en el jardín del olivo,

Sus ojos penetrantes en reflexión.

Yo se que el fue el Cristo, confirmado,

Y el espíritu en mi fue impulsado por él.

Piel deslucida quemada por el sol

El está con barba, admirablemente mantenido- buena lana;

Su cabello- no largo, como lo muestran las pinturas,

Marrón pero ligeramente oscuro, como el perfil de los salmos.

Espíritus impuros circulando por el aire;

sin distracción, firme, el esta en oración.

Evita esta visión si tu puedes!

Cristo en la cruz-deshuesado como pescado:

Horrible como el pecado, mi cuerpo esta conmocionado,

Mi mente esta empujando vomitando….

Ahora yo se el precio que el pagó;

Ningún hombre alguna vez ha sido visto de esta manera.

Extraño- parecen naves espaciales, laboratorios, todo espeluznante;

Maquinaria desconocida para mí,

Demonios poseídos, cayendo del espacio-

Nuestra atmósfera terrenal desfigurada.

Y el profeta profetizo:

«Habrán cosas entrañas… en el cielo»

Un brazo pálido- espantosamente delgado–cayendo;

«Esto es llamado pestilencia, pecado mortal:

El cuarto caballo del Apocalipsis,

Y el señor hablo, «arrepiéntanse, arrepiéntanse.»

Y el mundo probara inculta rima

Ah, ese es el tiempo del falso profeta.

Luego yo vi, un alto sacerdote, si puede llamarse así,

Con una toga de piedras preciosas,

Púrpura, piadoso orando- con tonos lastimeros:

¿Que iglesia? ¿Nimrod príncipe Satán?

«El trigo y el alquitrán crecerán juntos»,

Llora la búsqueda del cielo y el éxtasis…

Luego yo vi un águila, un dragón-

El águila herida, ¡cayendo desde el cielo!

El dragón. Con una mueca anormal-

Dientes como tiburón, abatido, pasando cerca

¡OH! La oscuridad acontecerá la tierra,

el precipicio esta abierto 12:03, la maldición.

Visiones van y visiones vienen,

El mundo espiritual llegando a ser real;

Eventos actuales-tiempo sin revelación,

¡El precipicio del infierno esta vivo!

Signos simbólicos de revelación,

Pero son futuras revelaciones.

«Corre hacia las montañas y las guaridas»,

Gritan las escrituras y amigo;

Para la muerte habrá su aguijón para ver

Los últimos días se están acercando.

Realidad con visiones de vida

Están presenciando la globalización.

Fue este el infierno o el ¿»lago del fuego»?

La profecía, la realidad, «esto es cierto»

Cuando yo vi esta visión, yo no fui dicho-

El fue preservado, consumido y congelado.

¡OH pero un chiste, menosprecio o burla!

¡Es una gran diferencia de esta búsqueda!

OH, pero esta época en la cual vivimos,

Verdaderamente, esta era es diferente, sentimos;

Una polarización de todas las cosas,

La Neutralidad no existe-

El tiempo, la relatividad, el presente;

Satanás pronto emprenderá la guerra en el cielo.

El universo, como un cuerpo de células,

Cayendo en cascada como las puertas del infierno.

Y entonces la ciencia de física

Susurros de termodinámica.

«Dios espiritual respira da la vida…

Como la célula que se hunde y muere».

Vi a Egipto, Rusia, USA,

En diferentes formas y representaciones, ¡preparándose!

Y Ezequiel grito desde las escrituras;

«Lluvias de fuego caerán en las costas».

Israel, Jerusalén-¡Tú!

Dos guerras: China y el polo Norte.

Dos planetas cerca uno del otro yo vi,

Uno como nuestra luna y el otro como ¿Marte?

Un tercer objeto un cometa – a exceso de velocidad

Directo a su canal, está alejándose.

Otro objeto, suavemente tallado,

Se dirige hacia la atmósfera de la tierra.

El desastre cabalga el caballo rojo:

Tres veces yo vi la muerte de Washington

Edificaciones, casas siendo atacadas,

Reactores, paracaidistas ! ardiendo!

Allí sobre la costa se sienta la Rana Magistral,

Un espíritu satánico, el Dios de Nueva York.

Un motor rugiente alrededor del globo,

Un águila herida, cayendo lentamente,

Un dragón posicionado, dientes como tiburones

La gran Babilonia en la oscuridad.

Las semillas de lo que serán seguramente

Daniel lo vio también- la bestia -de cordero.

Llama ahora, pero ¿Quién te responderá?

Sala de control, gente, y nubes, humo

Misiles velocísimos (polvo, remolino)

Lanzando la tierra como heno suelto;

Dos coronas, tazas de de madera, mesa larga,

Un trastorno, semejante a – la ira de Dios.

El final de la cola de una serpiente: ¿Tiburón?

Un escorpión-como propuesta

Los destellos de caras yo veo, un demonio,

Un enorme ser, empapado: ¿Neptuno?

Profecía: Una bestia del mar;

Y de los precipicios, colas que pican.

Una montaña muestra su cara impresionante

Una pirámide, barco, fuego, ¡vergüenza!

¿Está Egipto creciendo como el Nilo?

En un mundo político como un niño desnutrido.

¿El juicio juega a los bolos, con el equilibrio de la balanza

Uno por hombre, y el niño de Satanás?

Yo vi un halcón….¿de Palestina?

Su iris es un implacable, designio negro-

Un ave de rapiña, me dicen;

«mira hacia el sur», clama el profeta Job.

¿Naciones de rapiña, donde esta tu luz?

O, Israel, tu situación es grave.

Rostros enfadados que parecen morir,

Cuatro rostros atormentados ellos lloran,

Un herida sobre una cabeza. Afeitada,

Seccionada en cuatro, el centro un poquito sobrecogido.

El casco golpea el desprecio del Apocalipsis,

Gabriel esta parado cerca de su cuerno.

En un memento de visión

Allí ellos sentados…ah, en bancos de iglesia amortiguados,

Indiferentemente, en una iglesia desleal,

La gente durmiendo como en un trance.

Entonces esta escrito de -los días finales,

La deslealtad- los caminos cristianos.

¿»En manos de quien esta el club de la ira»?

Clama la palabra de Isaías:

¿De quién es su objetivo destruir?

¿Quien puede cambiar naciones como juguetes?

Y los profetas clamaron desde el pasado:

Las naciones son su salida y elección.

Entonces yo pregunté con profundo desconcierto

Conceder dos visiones a un amigo;

Los judíos eran mantenidos detrás de unas puertas de vidrio.

Negociando, preparando: un libro negro.

Y el profeta clamo por mucho tiempo,

¡»Este es el tiempo; deja ir a mi gente»!

Y en la selva, un rompecabezas-

Diez piezas, animales, de diferentes tamaños;

El enigma era poner todo junto,

Excepto por una pieza llamada la bestia.

Todas las piezas transformadas en vivas

¡»Pon nuestra casa en orden», clamo Isaías!


Yo vi su forma dentro de una cama-

Jezabel, Jezabel, yo temo;

Interesándome no con su sistema, si no con su atención:

Oscuridad, la última trompeta, historia.

Lagrimas, déjale oír quien tenga oídos,

Un niño en oración, y soldados en marcha.

¿Estoy vivo, en un útero… muerto?

¿En el cielo amamantado por unos Ángele

Humo, humo, bastante humo veo:

Jerusalén esta mirándome.

Tu estas iluminado? El caballero blanco

Intocable en esta noche oscura.

Egipto, Paris, campos de trigo;

Naves espaciales, maquinaria cayendo;

Vida, o muerte, un huevo en una mano:

Hambre, guerra, planes globales…

Los bolos de sentencia han llegado-

Ira y plagas están dentro.

Florida, tu estas polvorienta y ¿oscura…?

China, tú estas en las noticias…:

La gente leyendo el periódico (un evento mundial),

El tapiz rojo de Polonia, Java, etc.

¡Infortunio de penumbra interplanetaria!

La sangre de Armagedon.

Parte tres

Y ahora un verso de rima actual,

El Oriente medio pierde tiempo;

Crean en el señor…sus profecías.

No los rechace deliberadamente.

Y desde el halcón y los barcos del mar,

¡Los truenos de guerra esta alistándose!

¡Contempla! Esta noche yo veo al Cristo,

Con una barba envejecida que no estaba correcta.

¿No lo había advertido hace años?

No pises la tierra que esta vieja.

Luego vi un halcón, descendiendo,

Garras, alas extendiéndose, alistándose,

Y si, le pregunte por la profecía,

Una señal que todos podríamos conocer, yo creo;

El sudario, el sudario: tres veces yo vi,

El sudario de Turín un misterio.

Nacimiento de dolores del Apocalipsis, yo veo,

Un águila aturdida (los estados unidos)

Una mujer, parada en el desierto… ¿Porque?

Ángel octavo, Israel…déjala ir.

Visiones vienen y visiones van, ser bendecido;

Revelaciones declaraciones eso es así…


Camisetas LIGUE 1 Echa un vistazo a nuestra variedad de camisetas de equipos de fútbol. Camisetas de entreno y partido de clubes nacionales y selecciones internacionales.

Henderson Valley, New Zealand – A History In The Mist

Henderson Valley/Opanuku, New Zealand.

History and future of the misty valley.

From our earliest known history this valley has played its part in shaping the identity of Waitakere City and Auckland. This area has been inhabited for more than 1000 years as discovered by archaeologists at various Pa sites in the Ranges.

The Pacific rat, or kiore, a poor swimmer, could only have arrived in New Zealand with humans. In the mid-1990s a scientist radiocarbon-dated Pacific rat bones excavated from caves in the North Island, and came up with dates as early as 50-150 AD. Humans must also have arrived at this time, with rats on board. The discovery was a scientific bombshell.1

Maori Tradition tells that the earliest known inhabitants of the area were the the Turehu, (hapu or sub-tribe of the people called Patupaiarehe.) Generally described as being fair skinned, red- or light-haired, an elusive people who dwelt in the densely forested hills and only ventured out at night or under the cover of the valley’s plentiful fog and mist to fish and gather food. Turehu were sometimes heard deep in the bush by Maori, digging bracken fern root, but were often only visible to powerful tohunga/spiritual wise men. A condition of tapu pertained to these forest dwellers, and should any person intrude on their domain they would immediately abandon that part of the forest. Their leader was Tiriwa, and the area known traditionally as ‘Hikurangi’ now called the Waitakere Ranges and beyond were named Te Wao Nui A Tiriwa – The great Forest of Tiriwa. Tiriwa had homes throughout the region.3

Many years later (Circa 925AD), Maori Chief Maruiwi arrived in Taranaki and chose to look for land further north. 4 The Tino o Maruiwi successfully settled the open fertile flat land of the South Kaipara, however, when a large influx of canoes known as «the great fleet» arrived from Polynesia during the 13th and 14th centuries many of the Maruiwi were killed by the new arrivals, fugitives driven into hiding in the Ranges.5 Widespread vegetation changes were noted around this time from mainly forest species to bracken fern and scrub, due to Polynesian settlers burning the forest for kumara/ sweet potato cultivation, and to create space to encourage bracken fern growth. The starch-rich underground stems of bracken fern formed an important part of the settlers diet.6 It is also believed by Maori that Moa and giant eagle lived in the valley but appear to have been extinct by the end of the 17th century.

The Opanuku Stream runs through Henderson Valley, «Opanuku» meaning «The place of Panuku» and previously name of the whole of the valley area from the head of the stream high in the ranges to the Wai pareira or Henderson Creek. The story of the naming of the area is as follows:- A Turehu, called Nihotupu, lived in a cave named at the base of the Ruotewhenua hill in Waiatarua (located in dense bush off Opanuku Rd). On a food gathering expedition to Te Henga (Bethells), Nihotupu came across the gardens of a Maruiwi chief named Panuku. Nihotupu took gourds he found growing there and upon discovering Panuku’s wife Parekura working in the gardens, kidnapped her. Parekura was understandably unwilling, and made the clever decision to leave a trail in the hopes that Panuku would be able to find her. It worked, Panuku spotted the white feathers plucked discreetly from her clothing and tracked Nihotupu and Parekura back to his cave at Ruotewhenua, Panuku arrived and challenged Nihotupu to a fight, he agreed. Nihotupu lost and paid for his mistake with his life, the couple were reunited.

A hill next to Ruotewhenua and stream was named after Parekura, the stream runs from Ruotewhenua to join the Opanuku stream in the valley, rather romantic under the circumstances! 7 Nihotupu also has his name remembered in another stream which runs from Ruotewhenua to Parau, the Upper Nihotupu Dam, (Auckland’s highest dam) a gorge downstream, and the Lower Nihotupu Dam.

Sometime during the early 15th century the Mahuhu, (descendants of the great fleet who had taken over the Kaipara area) were themselves invaded by the Ngati Awa tribe, survivors again decided to take refuge in the Ranges . These refugee groups united and over time became the tribe we know as the Kawerau a Maki. From the 1450’s onward the Kawerau established tribal ownership of the Ranges which despite being a reticent and peaceful people, they managed to hang on to and are still considered mana whenua (traditional people of Opanuku) today.

The Wai pareira takes its name from Pareira an illustrious Kawerau ancestress who was niece of the renowned Polynesian navigator Toi te huatahi. After exploring the Hauraki Gulf and the Waitemata Harbour, Pareira and some of her followers decided to settle at Wai Pareira – the bay of Pareira. In time this name also became applied to the river we also call the Henderson Creek.8

Henderson Valley has it’s own pa and storage pits sited behind the Mountain and Henderson Valley Road area. The Puke-aruhe Pa (Hill of the bracken fern), was a Kawerau pa, built as a base for seasonal food gathering and used as a lookout to monitor their walkways to and from the Kaipara and Waitemata Harbours.9 If invasion loomed (which it did periodically) the Kawerau would abandon their pa and melt quietly into the forest, invisible as the Turehu, to return when the danger had passed. The pa site was largely destroyed in the 1970’s by bulldozing, but the pa storage pits are apparently still in tact.

European settlement

In 1843 recent Scottish immigrant (blacksmith) Thomas Henderson and his brother in law Henry MacFarlane decided to buy a small schooner named the LUCIDAN, which was in Auckland Harbour. Re-fitting her, they advertised for passengers and freight, sailing on the 31st January 1844 for the Bay of Islands. The vessel proved herself, so much so, that local Maori chiefs Paul, Te Kawau, Te Hira and Rawhiti asked Mr Henderson if he would be interested in a proposition to swap the ship for some land, stating that they had Governor Fitzroy’s permission to exchange the land, a total of 17,784 acres situated on the Whau, for the ship. With these assurances, Thomas agreed to the swap and handed over the schooner to the Maori chiefs. After a meeting with Henderson, Governor Fitzroy wrote a memorandum agreeing to the swap, but allowed Mr Henderson only 9,000 acres of the promised land in exchange for the schooner.

The land situated at the foot of the Waitakere Ranges included Henderson Valley. It was densely covered in bush with large stands of Kauri and Rimu trees, the partners knew the timber was valuable for ships spars and masts,as well as building materials. Henderson wisely also bought the 1000 acres of land adjacent to both the Opanuku and Henderson streams to ensure his sole uninterrupted use of the waterways for floating logs out of the hills. A timber license from the government allowed the stands of timber to be cut down. Timber workers were employed by Henderson & MacFarlane to pit saw the timber in the bush and float the heavy logs down the creeks to the outlet into the harbour. Large timber dams were built in the bush, to retain the cut logs before they were flushed down the creeks to the mill, deeply scouring the stream bed as they went. As areas of bush were cleared gum-diggers moved in, further clearing logged areas of other vegetation in their search for gum to supply the growing varnish industry.

Henderson & MacFarlane decided to set up a timber mill, they employed John McLeod, a Canadian immigrant timber worker to build it at the junction of the two creeks. A large water wheel (to drive the saws) and a dam was constructed, along with some small workers cottages and a cook house. Henderson’s Mill was taking shape from the bush as the trees and scrub were cleared. In later years a steam engine was installed at the mill, which reached a cutting capacity of 9000 super feet* of timber per day During its total years of operation, the mill was estimated to have cut some 45 million super feet of timber from the ranges.(*Super foot 12 inches long by 12 inches wide by 1 inch thick – 304mm X 304mm X 25 mm)

In 1858 Henderson sailed to China on a trading mission. Whilst there, he bought 50 pairs of Chinese ring-necked pheasants. Henderson took the birds to his mill. A Maori lady enthused over the birds bright colours, opened the door of the cage to touch them, seizing their chance the pheasants escaped into the surrounding bush. From these few birds in 1858, the wild population has grown throughout New Zealand, and we still see them in the upper valley.

Henderson sold his 10,000 acres of farm and bush land in 1881, the land sold readily to eager buyers.10 Most of Henderson Valley was deforested, with the exception of the steep and inaccessible upper reaches, (only 2% of the forest area of the Waitakere Ranges remained unaffected by the timber industry). The process of establishing pasture involved further clearing native scrub by fire, which often burnt out of control (Denyeret al. 1993).

In the 1890’s viticulture, and farming were established in the lower valley. From the vineyards of Dalmatia, immigrant families brought their wine making skills to the green foothills of Auckland’s Waitakere Ranges. Pleasant Valley Wines on Henderson Valley Road is the oldest. The 80 acre property bought in 1890 by Dalmatian, Stipan Yelas, to dig for gum. The winery was established in 1902 and remains in family ownership today.

Some years later in 1932, 19 year old Dudley Russell an Aucklander of English descent also decided his future lay in viticulture and bought 24 acres of land on Vineyard Rd in the valley. Dudley built a humble one room tin shed which became his home for the next ten years as he doggedly worked to establish his vineyard. By the 1970’s Western Vineyards was 115 acres with 64 acres in vines, producing award winning wines and his vision for the land, it’s cellars, swimming pool, tennis court, Japanese Garden and large home realised into a beautiful addition to the valley.

Wildlife habitat depletion from continued timber milling had a major impact on the area. By the mid 1930s the kaka, kiwi and kakariki parakeet were rare, the tui declining and the kokako gone, introduced farm animals took over.11

1945 saw the Sapich Brothers (Tony, Mark and Ivan) take on 80 acres at Forest Hill Rd, again the vineyard is still in family ownership. For generations these dedicated pioneer viticulturists and farmers tended their vines and struggled with unproductive soils high rainfall and humidity as the city grew around them slowly engulfing their slopes

The Henderson Valley primary school first opened its doors to 19 pupils in 1915 in a small 4 metre square rented temporary building on Gum Rd, opposite the current site on Henderson Valley Road. 4 Acres of land was bought at the current site in 1919 and once built 24 pupils attended from 1922 under the gimlet eye and stern discipline of headmistress Ethel Croker. By 1984 more buildings had been added and 125 pupils were on the roll. After further pressure due to more residential development substantial additions were built in the 1990’s as well as moving the Henderson Valley Hall on to the school grounds and by 2007 the number of students has risen to nearly 500.

By the 1920’s Aucklanders recognized the value of having such a large wilderness area close to the rapidly growing city and planned to protect a substantial area. The Scenic Drive was opened in 1939 and the Centennial Memorial Park was established in 1940.

During the late 50’s and early sixties ten acre block subdivisions spread, taking over land which farmers had struggled to use as farmland for many years,and making it into lifestyle blocks, Poultry farms replacing some. Sections were being sold on Grassmere road bringing new residents to the area.

The Waitakere Ranges Protection Society first came into being in 1973. More than 700 Hectares of land have been added to regional and district parkland as a result of the society’s efforts (including an addition to the 308 hectare Spraggs Bush at the top of the Valley) The parkland now covers 17,000 hectares in total.

A play centre was opened at the Henderson Valley Hall in 1974 where it operated until given land further down the valley on Farwood Drive where they built their own centre in 1988.

The Future for «The place of Panuku» .

Developmental pressures have increased along with the ever expanding population of Waitakere City. The enlarged park lands and regeneration of the forest have made the area more desirable for sub division and development than ever before. Local and Central Government have now agreed to establish legislation to protect the Waitakere Ranges Heritage area, upper Henderson Valley is included. «The goal is to put in place measures that will ensure that this important and finite resource is not gradually eroded and undermined with the result that the valued features that are lost forever»13. Kawerau a Maki and Ngati Whatua have expressed similar concerns. The bush of the Waitakere Ranges and the fingers remaining in the upper areas of the eastern foothills, have been identified by Waitakere City Council as outstanding landscape features. The lower eastern foothills with their mixture of pasture and bush have not. 14

The earliest known people of the valley considered themselves guardians of the land and its resources. Given the depredation it has suffered since, it is now time to back up that ancient wisdom with modern law in an effort to maintain and hopefully restore the original character of this unique area. Fortunately, with the re-establishment of forests in the Waitakere Ranges, and much work done by organizations such as the Auckland Regional Council, Waitakere City Council, Royal Forest and Bird Society, and the «Ark in the Park» project some native flora and fauna populations have returned to what’s left of the great forest of Tiriwa. The dawn chorus of Tui and Kereru and night calls of Morepork may be heard again echoing along this misty valley.


1. Geoff Irwin and Carl Walrond. «When was New Zealand first settled?»,Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. URL:www.TeAra.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MaoriNewZealanders/WhenwasNewZealandfirstsettled/en

2. The Maori as he was: a brief account of life as it was in Pre-European days. Author: Hoane Nahe, «Maori, Tangata Maori.»Journal of the Polynesian Society 3(1894):27-35.

3. «Waitakere Ranges,Ranges of Inspiration.» Waitakere Ranges Protection Society Inc 2006: 21

4. Hoani Nahe, ‘Maori, Tangata Maori.’ Journal of the Polynesian Society 3 (1894): 27-35.

5. JT Diamond & Bruce W Hayward «The Maori history and Legends of the Waitakere Ranges»:2-3

6. Geoff Irwin and Carl Walrond. «When was New Zealand first settled?»,Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.

7. JT Diamond & Bruce W Hayward «The Maori history and Legends of the Waitakere Ranges»: 34

8. Draft Waitemata Harbour Foreshore Reserve Management Plan, Part One. URL:www.waitakere.govt.nz/HavSay/pdf/waitemata-partone.pdf

9. Joan Lawrence «The Archeology of the Waitakere Ranges» 1989: 215

10. Anthony G Flude «Henderson’s Mill». Henderson Borough Council 1977. 11.URL:http://www.waitakere.govt.nz/AbtCnl/pp/districtplan/pdf/policy/cityenviroment.pdf 12&14.URL:http://www.waitakere.govt.nz/abtcit/ne/pdf/waitakere-ranges-heritage-bill.pdf

13. Waitakere Ranges Heritage Area Bill, 2006 No 15-1, Explanatory note, General Policy Statement,Issues Analysis, p. 2. [http://www.waitakere.govt.nz/abtcit/ne/pdf/ranges-] bkgrdrpt.pdf

Camisetas MUJER Echa un vistazo a nuestra variedad de camisetas de equipos de fútbol. Camisetas de entreno y partido de clubes nacionales y selecciones internacionales.

How the Discovery of a Map Revised the History of the World


Between 1421 and 1423 the Chinese mounted the largest fleet the world had ever seen which reached the far corners of the earth. The fleet discovered and charted the New World seventy years before Christopher Columbus and circumnavigated the globe a century before Magellan. The revelation of these achievements has challenged our notions of voyages of discovery and means that our knowledge of history has to be revised.


In the early 1990’s Gavin Menzies, a former British navy captain, discovered an unusual chart that was drafted in 1424 by a Venetian cartographer named Zuane Pizzigano. The chart showed a group of four islands in the Caribbean – Satanazes, Antilia, Saya and Ymana that did not appear in other map and marked places where no European had visited before such as Patagonia, the Andes, Antarctica and the east coast of Africa.

Menzies determined that these explorers were Chinese because only they had the skills in astro-navigation, horticulture and had a huge fleet large enough to mount such an epic voyage. (1)


When the fleet returned home in October 1423, emperor Zhu Di had fallen from the throne and a great storm had destroyed his palace. This was seen as a bad omen and as a result when his son succeeded to the throne he rejected the outside world and destroyed the majority of China’s documents recording China’s previous expansionist policies.


In 1402 emperor Zhu Di succeeded to the throne by overthrowing Zhu Yunwen and because he was not his father’s designated heir he sought to prove the legitimacy of his regime in the eyes of the Gods by conceiving a grand plan and for its’ implementation he turned to his bodyguard, admiral Zheng He.

Zheng He was a eunuch. Eunuchs were Mongol boys whom the Chinese castrated by severing their penises and testicles, after defeating the Mongols in the fourteenth century. Then they were conscripted into the army or used as personal servants to the emperor.

The grand plan involved forming an armada to establish an empire, building a new capital city in Beijing and extending the Great Wall of China.


A. ‘Tribute System’

Zheng He was commandeered to assemble a large armada to sail and chart the oceans of the world bringing foreign rulers and the entire world into China’s ‘tribute system’. (2)

Under that system rulers paid tribute to China in return for trading privileges and protection against enemies. China always gave its’ trading partners a greater value of goods – silks and porcelain at discounted prices, often funded by soft loans – than was received from them. Thus they were in perpetual debt to China.

B. Beijing – The New Imperial City

In 1404 in furtherance of a plan to build a new capital city four and a half million artisans and laborers were employed to work on construction and one million to guard them.

Beijing was to be the intellectual capital of the world with libraries and storage for four thousand encyclopedias, the opinions of 120 philosophers and sages of the Song dynasty together with commentaries of thinkers from the 11th and 13th centuries.

This would be unlike anything else in the rest of the world where printing was unknown and culture and scientific knowledge lagged far behind.

C. The Great Wall of China

This had been built between 221 and 206 BC to protect the northern frontiers from attack and the new wall was to run 6,400 kilometers west from the Pacific to the Heavenly Mountains in central Asia.


The Chinese had the most powerful navy in the world. Their treasure ships were ocean-going monsters built of teak, the rudders stood 36 feet high and they could carry more than 2000 tons of cargo. The galleys were protected by archers and were armed with gunpowder weapons, cannons, mortars flaming arrows and exploding shells.

The armada was organized like a modern convoy with the flagships at the center surrounded by junks, 90 feet long and 30 feet wide and an outer ring of warships.

The ships could remain at sea for over three months and cover 4500 miles because accompanying them were water tankers and grain ships with chickens, dogs, pigs and other animals for food and horses for the cavalry.

Trading ships from other nations would join in and the altogether there were more than 800 ships and crews large enough to fill a city.

Unlike European voyages which were aimed at finding treasure Chinese voyages

were scientific expeditions and included various professionals like interpreters, navigators, engineers and physicians to search for healing plants.


In order to support his thesis that Zheng He had discovered the New World Gavin Menzies had to follow the route the Chinese ships had taken but also to find traces of their presence in places along those routes.

Some thirty-four lines of evidence had survived the destruction of the records and he was also helped by his experience as a navigator in the navy and by Chinese historian, Ma Huan, who documented the first part of the voyage in his diaries. (3)


A. Chinese Astronomy

The armada set sail on March 8, 1421 and the hull shape of the ships meant that they had to sail before the wind.

In Chinese astronomy latitude was determined not by the distance north of the equator but by the distance from the North Pole which was determined by the altitude of Polaris, a bright star above the North Pole (i.e. its’ height above the horizon).

By sailing due south and keeping Polaris dead astern, the fleet could measure the star’s altitude with their sextants and thereafter every twenty-four hours to determine the change of latitude (i.e. its distance south of the North Pole).

Polaris was not visible in the southern hemisphere and therefore could not determine latitude south of the equator.

B. Da Conti and Fra Mauro

According to Ma Huan the armada sailed towards the Indian Ocean where it was divided into four fleets – three under the command of Hong Bao, Zhou Man and Zhou Wen. Zheng He commanded the fourth which sailed to south-east Asia before returning home in November 1421.

The fleet then sailed to Calicut in India and then up the west coast of Africa to the Cape Verde islands.

In a report of his journey to the Papacy a Venetian trader named Niccolo da Conti (c. 1395 – 1469) described the presence of Chinese warships in Calicut at the time of his visit. Also, a map of southern Africa dated 1459 and drawn by a Venetian cartographer Fra Mauro, included a drawing of Zheng He’s junks.

Both men claimed that a Chinese junk had sailed round the Cape of Good Hope and into the south Atlantic and this was confirmed by a Chinese chart dat 1420 called the Kangnido map which accurately depicted the coasts of Africa and must have been drawn by someone who sailed round the Cape.

Furthermore the Chinese had a practice of leaving carved stones as monuments to their achievements when they stopped at places on their voyages. Examples of stones found were the Matadi Falls in the Congo, a free standing one in Janela in Africa and another in Dondra Head in Sri Lanka.

After leaving the Cape Verde islands the fleet separated so admiral Zhou Wen went north with the current through the Caribbean to North America while admirals Hong Bao and Zhou Man took the current due south towards South America.

C. The Piri Reis Map

This map of South America drafted by an Ottoman admiral named Piri Reis in 1428 confirms that the fleet went to the Orinoco Delta and the Amazon. DNA of American Indian peoples in the Amazon, Brazil and Venezuela showed that they had diseases unique to China.

The winds then carried the fleet to Patagonia in south Argentina. A variety of birds and animals had been taken to and from the Americas. The Piri Reis map depicted a deer in Patagonia, a guanaco (type of camel) and a mountain lion which are native to South America. A native man and a dog-headed man or mylodon were found in the Chinese book called The Illustrated Record of Strange Countries 1430 which depicted animals found by the Chinese on their travels.

The Europeans also found when they arrived rice fields – a crop foreign to the Americas- in Mexico and Brazil, cotton unique to North America in the Cape Verde islands and coconuts from the South Pacific in Puerto Rico. Bananas, tobacco, sweet potatoes and maize from the Amazon were also exported to south-east Asia.


His mission was to chart the world east of the Falkland Islands. The current pushed the fleet into a narrow strait which is famously known as ‘The Strait of Magellan’ because it is a sea route between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

Then the fleet sailed to Antarctica as far south as the South Pole. A sailor from Bologna named Ludovico de Varthema in 1506 claimed that two Chinese sailors told him that the Chinese had sailed by the Southern Cross to regions that were very cold and had sunlight for only four hours a day which they could only have known by sailing there themselves. In addition the Piri Reis map showed ice running due south of the Strait of Magellan and must have been drawn by someone who sailed alongside it.

The fleet then got underneath the Canopus, a giant star directly above the South


A. Canopus

Getting underneath Canopus and knowing the circumference of the earth enabled the fleet to calculate the position of the South Pole. By cross- referencing Canopus to Polaris they could then use that star to obtain latitude anywhere in the southern hemisphere.

B.Australia – West Coast

Hong Bao’s fleet was carried by the current to the west coast of Australia via the island of Kerguelen as identified in the Dictionary of Ming Biography of Records and on the Chinese chart the Wu Pei Chi 1422.

The junk dispatched to chart the area got wrecked and in 1836 three hunters found the wreck of a ship built of mahogany which Europeans did not use to build ships and twenty years later was identified by an Australian Mrs. Manifold as the missing ship.

The Aboriginal Yangery tribe which live near the wreck-site have a distinctive color and facial features and claim that ‘yellow men’ settled among them who must have been from the wreck.


Zhou Man’s fleet got swept northward up the coast of Chile until they reached Peru. There they exchanged tributes with the indigenous Incas which are found in a novel about Zheng He’s voyages in 1597 called His-Yang-Chi-(Xi Yang Ji) all of which could be found in northern Peru including llamas, cachalots (small whales) and Asiatic hens.

After leaving Peru, the fleet split into two parts. The northern squadron sailed to the Carolinas, New Guinea and the Philippines.

Evidence of their presence in the Americas were observation platforms in the Carolinas, like those in China; Chinese hens in Peru and maize and tools used to grind it, indigenous to the Americas, were found in the Philippines.

The southern squadron was carried by the current to the east coast of Australia.

A. Australia – East Coast

In the imperial zoo in Beijing there is the figure of a Kangaroo which is unique to Australia and in the 1840’s a ruined fortress was found in New South Wales formed with large stones and mortar with a large tree growing under the stones. Such fortifications were not built by the Aborigines and given the age of the tree must have been built before the British arrived.

Also found were rock carvings depicting a Chinese junk with people in long robes

Indicating the presence of Chinese.

A shipwreck was found near Byron Bay in New South Wales and in 1965 sand-miners found a huge rudder, 40 feet high which must have been Chinese since only they built ships with such large rudders.

The similarities of another wreckage near Wollongong near Sydney and two more in Perth proves the presence of the Chinese in east Australia in the 15th century.

New Zealand – The current pushed the fleet to the South Island of New Zealand where the wreck of an old wooden ship was found on the southern tip and in 1831 Sydney seamen saw mylodons and sea otters which are not indigenous to New Zealand and must have escaped the wreck.

On the North Island a huge carved stone was found with concentric circles similar to the ones the Chinese left behind in Dondra Head, Janela and by the Matadi Falls in the Congo Delta.

A celebrated bell similar to Zheng He’s bell cast after the sixth voyage was found near a ship wreck on Ruapuke beach, an oriental figurine was found near Auckland and the Maoris near Ruapuke had a legend that ‘Patupaiarche’ or pale-skinned Chinese settlers had married Maori women proving the Chinese had reached New Zealand.

Brisbane, Australia – The fleet made a second landfall in Australia, north of Brisbane. There their engineers went ashore on horses and gathered gold and other precious minerals and built pyramids in Gympie obviously to mark the location of the precious riches.

As recent as October 5, 2002 historian Brett Green unearthed the wreck of a large Chinese ship off Queensland proving that Captain Cook did not discover Australia.

After Australia they visited the Spice Islands and the Philippines where they exchanged silks and porcelain for spices, large enough to fill the imperial warehouse in Beijing.

B.The First Colony in the Americas

The manner in which the islands were drawn on the Waldseemuller map which was the first map of the world published in 1507 and named after German cartographer, showed that Zhou Man’s fleet after leaving the Philippines set up colonies along the Pacific coast from California to Ecuador.

Professor Judith A. Carney of the University of California argues that it was the Chinese who taught the American farmer how to farm and by the 1870’s seventy five percent of farm laborers in California were of Chinese origin. (4)

Also in 1874 Stephen Powers, an official inspector of the Government of

California found linguistic evidence of a Chinese colony on the Russian River in California, seventy miles north of the wreck of a Chinese junk (the Sacramento junk) which had been built in 1410 and was identified by the carbon-date of the wood.

Powers described Chinese settlers as having intermarried with local Indians and their descendants were paler than people on the coast and the older generation had beards while the women were as proud of their black hair as the Chinese.

Rather than skins, women wore a single garment in the shape of a wool sack, sleeveless and gathered at the neck. Unlike Indian tribes, after death the descendants desired like the Chinese to be buried in the ancestral soil of their tribe; they were sedentary; four fifths of their diet was vegetarian and they had a vast knowledge of botanical names.

Pottery was formed in classic Chinese shapes whereas the Indians beat out a hollow of a rock leaving the outside rough. The ancient tribes used long knives but their descendants used obsidian or jasper (a type of crystal); the ancestors fashioned tobacco pipes from serpentine while their descendants made simple wooden ones and used a Chinese method of snaring wildfowl by using decoy ducks.(5)

Powers’ arguments are also supported by DNA evidence which corroborates the Asian origin of Native American populations and suggests recent gene flow from Asia. (6)

On the eastern side of San Francisco Bay, seventy miles south of the Sacramento junk is a small stone-built village with low walls which in 1904 Dr. John Fryer, a professor of Oriental Languages at University College, Berkeley, California stated was the work of the Chinese who wall themselves in as they do in China.

Lastly, fifty stone carvings of ships and forty horses were found alongside the Mississippi river suggesting that the horses were brought there by ship.

C. Colonies in Central America

After leaving the coast of California the fleet made landfall in Colima, Mexico.

Here they encountered the Mayan civilization nearly as old and fine as their own. When the Spanish conquistadores arrived in Mexico in the 1520’s they found Asiatic chickens; the names of birds Kek or Ki were similar to those of the Chinese and the Mexicans like the Chinese used chickens for ceremonial purposes.

Sweet potatoes, tomatoes and papayas which are indigenous to Central America were found in Easter Island in Oceania and sweet potatoes were also found in Hawaii. The Maya had built stone cities like Palenque in Chiapas built in c. AD 325- 925 which was filled with treasures for which the Chinese exchanged silks and ceramics.

Metals were mined in the same way as in China and mirrors were important in both cultures.

But the strongest signs of Chinese influence was in Uruapan where the process of preparing lacquer which is obtained from a tree in China (or Ch’I-Ch’l in Chinese) are identical in Mexico and China. There are also similar techniques to obtain other dyes such as madder red, indigo blue, scarlet and shellfish purple as well as Vermilion dyes obtained from insects scraped off oak trees, lac (lactic acid) from Asia and royal (tyrian) purple from marine snails.

Linguistic evidence of Chinese visits to South America are a sailing ship is chamban in Colombia, sampan in China; a raft, balsa in South America and palso in China and a log raft, jangada in Brazil and ziangada in Tamil. Villagers in a mountain village in Peru speak Chinese.

DNA evidence shows that the peoples in Mexico, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and Peru share Chinese DNA. So deep is the Chinese influence on continent that it could be called ‘Chinese America’.


A. The Caribbean

Zhou Wen sailed north to the Cape Verde Islands where the currents converged to take them towards the Dominica Passage.

The fleet sailed northwards to Guadeloupe, an island reportedly inhabited by Carib cannibals who among other things used human skulls as drinking vessels and other body parts as food. On a modern map of the area this island was Satanazes-Satan Island and as regards the other islands shown for the first time on the Pizzigano chart Saya was identified as Les Saintes, Antilia matched Puerto Rico and Ymana placed directly above the volcanoes of La Souffriere, La Citerne and L’Echelle.

The wind then drove the fleet due north along the coast of Cuba towards Grand Bahama in The Bahamas.

B.Bimini Road

In 1968 an underwater rock formation was found off the coast of North Bimini in the Bahamas. It lies on the ocean floor, about a thousand yards from the shore and comprised hundreds of flat rocks, eight to ten feet square arranged in regular patterns, called Bimini Road. It was man-made with two parallel lines of stones running south-west towards the ocean. The western section starts at an angle of 160 degrees to the beach and curves round to run directly to the shore.

Gavin Menzies thinks Bimini Road is a submerged dry dock created by the Chinese and since sea levels were about six feet lower six centuries ago, this dock could have been on the shore of Bimini.

As the fleet sailed towards Bimini many ships ran aground and were tied alongside seaworthy ones to keep them afloat. The stern would have had to be turned around to face the beach before being hauled to shore.

The Chinese had engineers aboard and over six centuries’ experience of laying stonework under water and the stones used are found in Yangtze in China and could have been cut and sized in Nanjing where the treasure ships were built.

Four junks had sunk off North Bimini and five abandoned and the rest repaired. Some of the surviving sailors had to be left behind and when food supplies ran out they would have had to set up settlements in Cuba and along the east coast of Florida. (7)

This explanation is consistent with reports from successive explorers on seeing men in ‘white tunics which reached to their knees’ along the route the Chinese had followed.

C. Settlement in North America

There is an abundance of evidence of the presence of the Chinese on the North American mainland.

The junks were carried by the Gulf Stream to Cape Hatteras in North Carolina where they divided into two squadrons. One squadron went to the Cape Verde Islands via the Azores and the other went north circumnavigated Greenland and back down its’ east coast.

In 1524 Venetian explorer Giovanni de Verrazzano stopped in the Narragansett Bay near Rhode Island and described the local people as wearing long dresses and jewellery with long black hair which fits the description of Chinese concubines. He also described seeing at the entrance to the bay a natural rock which appears to be the rock on which stands the Round Tower in the park in Newport, Rhode Island. (8) The tower must have been to mark a Chinese settlement or been a lighthouse to mark the bay.

Six separate accounts of the first Europeans to reach New England described civilized white or bronze-skinned women living in Newport who wore eastern clothes and combed their hair in buns like Chinese women.

Menzies discovered twelve curious stones erected by the Chinese in a small are in eastern Massachusetts similar to the ones the Chinese had left behind in Africa and Asia.

The results of recent tests on the Moskoke people in south-east United States show Chinese DNA.

New England could now be renamed ‘New China’.

In the Azores on the island called The Raven (Corvo) there was a Chinese statue of a man on a horse, his head is uncovered and he is bald, his left-hand rests upon his horse and his right-hand points towards the west. This was no doubt a replica of Zhu Di. The statue is Chinese because the Azores appears on the Chinese Kangnido chart which was produced before the Portuguese discovered the islands.

C. Expedition to the North Pole

The Chinese got as far as Greenland and in 1448 Pope Nicholas V wrote to the bishops of Skalholt and Holar in Iceland about ‘barbarians’ (a term that refers to people from the east) attacking the inhabitants of Greenland.

The existence of stone villages was proof of Chinese colonies and on the Bache Peninsula of Ellesmere Island was a colony of about twenty-five houses and beacons as well as evidence of Chinese mining of copper near Devon Island.

Further evidence is the Vinland map (c.1424) depicting the coast of Greenland with precise accuracy and DNA analysis proving that the Natives of Hvalsey, a

settlement in Greenland possess Chinese DNA.


Yang Qing had left Beijing a month before the rest of the armada and spent his whole voyage in the Indian Ocean where his big achievement was learning to determine longitude.

The key to finding longitude is to observe the same event like a lunar eclipse at different locations around the globe and fixing the exact time the event took place, then calculating the differences in longitude. The Chinese had a big enough fleet to deploy at different locations to take readings. If the longitude of say Malacca is determined the fleet could use other observation posts around the Indian Ocean to take readings on the same night. In a lunar eclipse the earth is between the sun and the moon and the earth’s shadow obscures the moon. The Chinese could forecast a lunar eclipse that occurs about every six months.

Because of this achievement, the origin of world maps as well as latitude and longitude could be determined along with the discovery of the New World.


The evidence proves conclusively that the glory for discovering the New World should go to Chinese admirals Zheng He, Hong Bao, Zhou Man and Zhou Wen and their fleets 1421 – 1423 and not to the Europeans.

The evidence includes physical entities like shipwrecks of Chinese junks in America, Australia and India; carved stones of Africa and the remains of Chinese people in South America; DNA, artifacts, scientific and circumstantial evidence from the fifteenth century including linguistic, ceremonial and spiritual.

Archaeological teams all over the world are evacuating sites believed to contain relics of Chinese shipwrecks.

The data is enshrined in over a thousand books providing evidence of pre-Columbian Chinese journeys to the Americas and is summarized in a two-volume bibliography. (9)

The Chinese provided Europeans with maps, navigational tools and an astronomical calendar beyond anything they produced on their own. Their methods of calculating latitude and longitude were given to the Europeans so that Columbus, Magellan and other explorers used them to reach the New World.

The Chinese colonized America and transplanted economic crops that have since fed and clothed the world.


(1) 1421 The year China Discovered America by Gavin Menzies p. 34 to 35.

(2) Emperor Zhu Di’s instructions to Zheng He, paraphrased from the two stone steles of 1431.

(3) The Overall Survey of the Ocean Shores, published after Zheng He’s voyage in 1433

(4) Carey McWilliams, Factories in the Field, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2000. P.68-80).

(5) Stephen Powers ‘Aborigines of California: An Indo-Chinese Study’ in Atlantic, Vol.33, 1874 and Contributions to North American Ethnology, Vol.3, Department of Interior, Washington DC 1877).

(6) Human Biology (vol. 70) entitled ‘Polymorphic Alu Insertions and the Asian

Origin of Native American Populations’ by Professor Novick.

(7) 1421 The year China Discovered America by Gavin Menzies p.310-316.

(8) Account of Verazzano’s voyage in his letter 8July 1524 to Francis quoted in D.B.Quinn (ed.) North American Discovery, Harper & Row 1971.

(9) J.L. Sorenson and M.H. Raish, pre-Columbian Contact with the Americas across the Oceans; An Annotated bibliography, Provo Research Press 1990).

Acknowledgement I am greatly indebted to Gavin Menzies and his book ‘1421 – The year China discovered America’ – for the information contained in this article.

Victor A. Dixon

Author and Social Scientist

Revised October 23, 2020

Camisetas REAL SOCIEDAD Echa un vistazo a nuestra variedad de camisetas de equipos de fútbol. Camisetas de entreno y partido de clubes nacionales y selecciones internacionales.

The Michigan Medical Marijuana Act: The First 24-Months

This article chronicles the implementation of the Michigan Medical Marijuana Act, passed via referendum in the 2008 general election. As expected, once applied to our human tapestry, the MMA has been subjected to some already-classic judicial interpretations, with a strong promise of more to come.

The Michigan Legislature passed the MMA on December 4, 2008, making Michigan the 13th state to allow the cultivation and possession of marijuana for medical purposes. The Act cited a series of findings related to the beneficial uses of marijuana in treating nausea, pain and other effects from a variety of debilitating medical conditions. The Act also notes that according to the FBI, 99% of all marijuana possession arrests nationwide are done pursuant to state, rather than federal law. It is important to note that possession of the drug remains illegal under federal law.

The MMA defines a «debilitating medical condition» as cancer, glaucoma, HIV, hepatitis C, and other diseases along with other chronic afflictions which cause pain and nausea. A «primary caregiver» is defined as, «a person who is at least 21 years old and who has agreed to assist with a patient’s medical use of marijuana and who has never been convicted of a felony involving illegal drugs.» A «qualifying patient» is «a person who has been diagnosed by a physician as having a debilitating medical condition.»

The basic mechanics of the Act provide that qualifying patients and primary care providers (marijuana growers) must possess a «registry identification card», issued by the Department of Community Health. Tens of thousands of applications have been processed; many thousands remain pending with more filed every week; the demand for certification, for marijuana, is seemingly insatiable here in Michigan.

The high demand is understandable. Cardholders are not subject to arrest or prosecution for marijuana possession/distribution provided the patient keeps less than 2.5 ounces of smokeable pot. Care providers are allowed to maintain up to 12 plants for each qualified patient; stems, seeds and unusable roots do not count toward the plant limitation.

Physicians also have immunity from prosecution relative to their certification of the patient’s need for the drug, so long as they conduct an assessment of the patient’s medical history. A legitimate physician-patient relationship is required.

Since the U.S. Supreme Court decided the case of Conant vs Walters in 2003, physicians have been able to recommend a patient’s use of marijuana (but cannot prescribe pot by placing the recommendation on a prescription form). Doctors can also make notes regarding their recommendations in the patient’s chart and can testify on behalf of a patient’s medical use of marijuana in a court of law. The Supreme Court’s Conant decision paved the way for passage of the MMA.

Primary care providers may receive compensation for their marijuana. Selling marijuana paraphernalia also is allowed under the MMA, and such paraphernalia cannot be seized.

Persons merely present during the use of marijuana for medical purposes likewise are not subject to arrest.

Sound too good to be true? When marijuana is distributed to persons other than qualifying patients, the registration card is revoked, and the provider is subject to a 2-year felony. Also, driving while under the influence of marijuana remains illegal, as does smoking in public. Use or possession of pot on school premises or on school buses remains prohibited. And yes, it remains illegal to smoke in a jail or a penitentiary, regardless of your medical condition.

The Act set a short timetable (120-days) for the Department of Community Health to promulgate regulations for the administration of the possession/distribution credential. The delay in the promulgation of these regulations gave way to confusion among law enforcement, the public and some judges as to what is legal and what is illegal.

For example, the 2009 Redden case from Madison Heights involved a couple arrested during a drug-raid. The couple had applied for certification cards prior to their arrest and received the cards a month after their arrest. In dismissing the case brought against the two defendants, 43rd District Judge Robert Turner characterized the MMA as, «the worst piece of legislation I’ve seen in my life», according to the Detroit News. Judge Turner’s dismissal was appealed by the Oakland County Prosecutor where it was affirmed in the Oakland County Circuit Court.

Earlier this year, the Michigan Court of Appeals affirmed Oakland Circuit Court Judge Martha Anderson’s reinstatement of the criminal charges against Redden and Clark. Now, the accused Madison Heights couple will either have to plead or go to trial.

At the time of the raid on the couple’s residence, the Oakland County Sheriff seized 1.5 ounces of pot, some nominal cash, and about 21 small plants. Three weeks prior to the raid, each defendant had submitted to a medical certification exam with Dr. Eric Eisenbud (not making it up) of Colorado (and of the recently founded Hemp and Cannabis Foundation Medical Clinic) and applied for a medical marijuana card pursuant to the MMA. Their cards, however, had not been issued at the time of the raid.

At the couple’s preliminary examination before Judge Turner, the prosecutor argued that: a) the defendants were required to abstain from «medicating» with marijuana while their applications to the State of Michigan’s Department of Community Health were pending; and b) the defendants did not have a bona fide physician-patient relationship with Dr. Eisenbud.

Judge Turner indicated that the MMA was confusing relative to what constituted a reasonable amount of marijuana. The defendants in this case were found with an ounce and a half; the MMA allows 2.5 ounces.

Judge Turner made the following ruling:

For that reason, I believe that section 8 entitles the defendants to a dismissal, even though they did not possess the valid medical card, because section 8 says if they can show the fact that a doctor believed that they were likely to receive a therapeutic benefit, and this doctor testified to that. And Dr. Eisenbud is a physician licensed by the State of Michigan. And that’s the only requirement that the statute has. You don’t have to be any type of physician, you just have to be a licensed physician by the State of Michgan.

So, based on that, I find section 8 does apply. And I believe I’m obligated to dismiss this matter based on section 8 of the statute.

Under the applicable court rules, the prosecutor appealed the district court dismissal to the Oakland Circuit Court. In reversing her district court counter-part, Judge Anderson held that Judge Turner improperly acted as a finder of fact in dismissing the case. Judge Anderson also questioned whether the couple could avail themselves of the MMA’s affirmative defenses at all, due to their purported failures to comply with the provisions of the act; i.e. keeping the pot segregated and locked-up, and waiting until they received their cards from the Department of Community Health prior to growing their pot.

At the time of the Madison Heights bust, however, the couple could not have received marijuana cards because the DCH had not started issuing the cards. To date, almost 30,000 certifications have been issued.

In their September 2010 opinion affirming Judge Martha Anderson, the Court of Appeals held that the MMA’s affirmative defenses were available to defendants even though they did not have their cards at the time their pot was confiscated. The Court of Appeals held against defendants, however, on the basis that, at the time of their preliminary examination in district court, their affirmative defense under the MMA was incomplete and thus created fact questions.

The Court found the following fact issues to be unresolved at the conclusion of the exam: the bona fides of the physician-patient relationship; whether the amount of marijuana found in the residence was «reasonable» under the Act; and whether the marijuana was being used by defendants for palliative purposes, as required by the Act.

The most interesting thing about the Court of Appeals’ Redden decision is the scathing concurring opinion of Judge Peter D. O’Connell. Judge O’Connell wrote separately because he would have more narrowly tailored the affirmative defenses available in the MMA, and because he wished to «elaborate» on some of the general discussion of the Act set forth in the briefs and at oral argument.

Elaborate he did. Judge O’Connell’s 30-page opinion first notes that the possession, distribution and manufacture of marijuana remains a federal crime and further notes that Congress has expressly found the plant to have «no acceptable medical uses.»

In what will undoubtedly become a classic line from his opinion, Judge O’Connell writes, «I will attempt to cut through the haze surrounding this legislation.» The judge is skeptical that folks are really using pot to «medicate» and suspects that they are using the plant for recreational purposes.

He also takes note of the poor quality of the legislation to the extent that it conflicts with other provisions set forth in the Health Code.

Judge O’Connell next takes a tour de force through the legislative history of the MMA. Here, we learn that the act was based on model legislation proposed by lobbyists known as the Marijuana Policy Project of Washington D.C. The group advances both the medicinal and recreational uses of marijuana.

«Confusion», and lots of it, is how Judge O’Connell views the MMA. In one of the many footnotes to his opinion, the Judge warns against all marijuana use until the score is settled, once and for all, by the Michigan Supreme Court:

Until our Supreme Court provides a final comprehensive interpretation of this act, it would be prudent for the citizens of this state to avoid all use of marijuana if they do not wish to risk violating state law. I again issue a stern warning to all: please do not attempt to interpret this act on your own. Reading this act is similar to participating in the Triwizard Tournament described in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire: the maze that is this statute is so complex that the final result will only be known once the Supreme Court has had an opportunity to review and remove the haze from this act.

Euan Abercrombie, 1st year student at the Hogwarts school would probably remark; «Wow».

For their part, the criminal defense bar, commenting via listserv, have basically gone wild over the concurring opinion, with its multiple web site references and pictures of marijuana advertisements. The consensus among the defense bar, however, is that the majority opinion is correct and that Judge Anderson, at the end of the day, got it right; Redden was not the cleanest case to dismiss under the Act.

The Oakland County Sheriff and Prosecutor correctly anticipated the Court of Appeals’ September decision. A few weeks prior to the Redden decision, they conducted a series of dispensary raids, ruffling tons of feathers along the way.

Of course, an application for leave to appeal has been filed with the Michigan Supreme Court.

For additional procedural guidance, we have prepared a legal guide for the MMA for those seeking to use marijuana for legitimate palliative purposes under the Act. Take note, however, that at least one appellate jurist would have folks managing chronic «pain» with prescription meds until the medical marijuana mess is sorted out by our Supreme Court.

Redden is not the only case causing some MMA consternation. Rodney Koon’s case has received notoriety. Koon was convicted of a misdemeanor because he admitted to police that he used marijuana to «medicate» earlier in the day that he was pulled-over by the police. Koon also admitted to consuming a beer, but his blood alcohol was within legal limits. Without sufficient funds to appeal, Koon is stuck with his conviction, even though he had a pot card at the time of his arrest.

Ordinances have sprung-up across the state to truncate the scope of the MMA. Bloomfield Hills, for example, passed an ordinance in October requiring card-carrying certified medical marijuana users to register with the Bloomfield Township Police Department. The ordinance also requires the submission of a form to the police disclosing the «patient’s» drivers license number and date of birth, whether the patient owns or rents their home, and identifying how many other patients share their home.

In addition, the ordinance limits the number of medical marijuana patients that can live at one address and prohibits growing medical marijuana anywhere in Bloomfield Township. Violation of the ordinance is a 93-day misdemeanor carrying a $500 fine.

Bloomfield Hills is among several municipalities that have passed ordinances that restrict the provisions of the Medical Marijuana Act, criminalize conduct authorized by the Act, or both.

Now the ordinance is the subject of a lawsuit filed against the township by two crafty [their «clients» are John and Jane Doe] veteran criminal defense attorneys: Tom Loeb and Neil Rockind. The lawsuit, undoubtedly heading to the Michigan Supreme Court, does not seek money damages but rather, declarative and injunctive relief.

Township by township, the MMA is coming under fire for a glaring flaw: it is a ruse for recreational pot users. Yes, there are legitimate medical marijuana users out there, in spades, for whom the MMA was designed to help. There are also many «patients» whose medical records were reviewed with a passing glance by a physician more interested in the high-volume review fees than in determining whether the person has a genuine chronic medical condition of the sort required by the MMA. The LawBlogger wonders how many certified users, among the tens of thousands of backlogged applicants, are under the age of 25; or are college kids whose only chronic condition is their desire to party down.

As these legal challenges grind through the court system over the next two or three years, the MMA will be subject to death-by-ordinance on a township-by-township basis. Attorneys Rockind and Loeb remarked in their press conference announcing their lawsuit that the ordinance in Bloomfield Hills cannot stand to the extent it contradicts a valid Michigan law.

While it may not be the best example of tightly drafted legislation; while it undoubtedly suffers from problems of perception/deception, the MMA is a valid state law. The appellate courts will have no choice but to invalidate ordinances that limit the scope of the Act, or criminalize it’s legitimate purposes.

This past fall, the recent election was a set-back for progressive marijuana laws. California’s Proposition 19 lost by a vote of 56% to 44%. If successful, the proposed law would have been the first in the country to legalize the recreational use of marijuana.

In Arizona, the medical marijuana proposition lost.

In California, the pot initiative lost because too few voters under age 26 turned out and moderate voters rejected the initiative. Recent violence with Mexican drug gangs in both California and Arizona did not help either initiative.

Mixed messages float around the issue here in Michigan. Recently, a huge pot-expo scheduled for the Pontiac Silverdome, billed as the largest pot-party in the world, was canceled at the last minute.

All this raises the questions: do we really need to legalize pot? Is ours a pot-smoking nation? Does marijuana have genuine palliative properties?

One of the major problems of perception with medical marijuana laws is that folks are simply going through the administrative steps to get «medically» certified to use pot, but are smoking on a recreational basis.

No good comes of a law that sets requirements that are perceived as a farce. It would perhaps be better to legalize marijuana outright, then regulate its production, sale, and distribution.

California was really looking forward to billions in pot-derived state revenue. Here in Michigan, there is confusion about who can legally grow pot and how it should be grown and distributed to «patients». In Arizona, the question is too close to call 3-days after the mid-term elections.

So then, what are they smoking? That’s what Detroit-based Cannabis Counsel lawyer Matthew Abel is asking of the Michigan Senate Judiciary Committee, who met earlier this year, in January, in order to discuss a package of bills which would amend the public health code so that medical marijuana must be dispensed by pharmacists, and to classify medical marijuana as a schedule 2 controlled substance.

«It seems that if the legislature ever passed these bills, they would be in conflict with the medical marijuana statute,» Abel said. «So they’d need a 3/4 vote to supersede the law, and you know that they can’t even get 3/4 of the legislature to agree on lunch, let alone this.»

Southfield-based lawyer Michael Komorn, who also serves as the treasurer for the Michigan Medical Marijuana Association, said the bills are similar to bills introduced last year; last year, the bills which also would have allowed for 10 marijuana growing facilities to be affiliated with a pharmacy, got no traction.

This year’s incarnation of the bills would essentially make all production of medical marijuana illegal, though use would still be protected by law, Komorn said.

«It’s like the stamp act, arcane and without any understanding of what really is going on with patient needs,» Komorn said. «Bottom line, this is an attempt to repeal the Michigan medical marijuana act.»

It’s impossible, Abel said, to require dispensing of medical marijuana through pharmacies.

«They don’t have a supply, and no way to get it. There’s just no way for them to do it,» Abel said.

Still, he’s resting easy with the idea that the bills are going nowhere, and are really more about grandstanding for political popularity than they are about the Michigan medical marijuana law.

Now that the MMA has been around long enough to generate some interesting cases and controversies, we must wait until one of them percolates through the Michigan Supreme Court in order to get a true sense of this legislation. Our blog takes the position that the MMA is flawed and thus, exposed to failure, so long as it can be used to mask recreational pot use. Perhaps the most common sense thing to do at this point is what Peter Tosh called for world-wide: just legalize it.

Camisetas AJAX Echa un vistazo a nuestra variedad de camisetas de equipos de fútbol. Camisetas de entreno y partido de clubes nacionales y selecciones internacionales.

Discovering Science Fiction’s Re-emergence and Re-assessment in the USA

Science fiction has emerged as acceptable in the literary cannon with the inclusion of a wide selection of science fiction writers as worthy of studying. At least this was one of the facts I learnt of a genre which I had for long associated with popular thrillers when we discussed Contemporary American Literature in the US a year or so ago.

Science fiction is a broad genre of fiction often involving speculations on current or future science or technology usually in books, art, television, films, games, theater, and other media. In the age of television, computers and other technology, the fascination of contemporary fiction writers with technology has become an extension of the sphere of social realism for the exploration of writers..

Science fiction is akin to fantasy. But it differs from it in that, its imaginary elements are largely possible within scientifically postulated laws of nature though some elements might still be pure imaginative speculation.

Science fiction is largely then writing entertainingly and rationally about alternate possibilities in settings that are contrary to known reality including:

o A setting in the future, in alternative time lines, or in a historical past that contradicts known historical facts or archaeological records

o A setting in outer space, other worlds, or one involving aliens.

o Stories that contradict known or supposed laws of nature.

o Stories that involve discovering or applying new scientific principles, such as time travel or psionics,

o Stories that involve the discovery or application of new technology, such as nanotechnology, faster-than-light travel or robots,

o Stories that involve the discovery or application of new and different political or social systems

Science fiction also involves imaginative extrapolations of present day phenomena, such as the thoughtful projection forward of contemporary medical practices such as organ transplants, genetic engineering, and artificial insemination or the evolving social changes such as the rise of the suburb and the growing disparity between the rich and poor.

Science fiction has a widening range of possibilities in themes and form. It embraces many other subgenres and themes.

Science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein defines it as «realistic speculations about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world, past and present, and on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method.» For Rod Serlin whilst «fantasy is the impossible made probable, Science Fiction is the improbable made possible.There are thus no easily delineated limits to science fiction. For even the devoted fan- has a hard time trying to explain what it is.

Hard science fiction, gives rigorous attention to accurate detail in quantitative sciences producing many accurate predictions of the future, but with numerous inaccurate predictions emerging as seen in the late Arthur C. Clarke who accurately predicted geostationary communications satellites, but erred in his prediction of deep layers of moondust in lunar craters.

«Soft» science fiction its antithesis describes works based on social sciences such as psychology, economics, political science, sociology and anthropology with writers as Ursula K. Le Guin and Philip K. Dick. and its stories focused primarily on character and emotion of which; Ray Bradbury is an acknowledged master.

Some writers blur the boundary between both. Mack Reynolds’s work, for instance, focuses on politics but anticipates many developments in computers, including cyber-terrorism.

The Cyberpunk genre, a portmanteau of «cybernetics» and «punk» ,emerged in the early 1980s.» First coined by Bruce Bethke in his 1980 short story»Cyberpunk,» its time frame is usually the near-future and its settings are often dystopian. Its common themes include advances in information technology, especially of the Internet (visually abstracted as cyberspace (possibly malevolent), artificial intelligence, enhancements of mind and body using bionic prosthetics and direct brain-computer interfaces called cyberware, and post-democratic societal control where corporations have more influence than governments. Nihilism, post-modernism, and film noir techniques are common elements. Its protagonists may be disaffected or reluctant anti-heroes. The 1982 film Blade Runner is a definitive example of its visual style with noteworthy authors in the genre being William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, Pat Cadigan, and Rudy Rucker.

Science fiction authors and filmmakers draw on a wide spectrum of ideas. Many works overlap into two or more commonly-defined genres, while others are beyond the generic boundaries, being either outside or between categories.The categories and genres used by mass markets and literary criticism differ considerably.

Time travel stories popularized by H. G. Wells’ novel The Time Machine with antecedents in the 18th and 19th centuries are popular in novels, television series ( Doctor Who), as individual episodes within more general science fiction series ( «The City on the Edge of Forever» in Star Trek, «Babylon Squared» in Babylon 5, and «The Banks of the Lethe» in Andromeda )and as one-off productions such as The Flipside of Dominick Hide.

Alternate history stories based on the premise that historical events might have turned out differently. using time travel to change the past, or simply set a story in a universe with a different history from our own. Classics in the genre include Bring the Jubilee by Ward Moore, in which the South wins the American Civil War and The Man in the High Castle, by Philip K. Dick, in which Germany and Japan win World War II. .

Military science fiction exploits conflicts between national, interplanetary, or interstellar armed forces; in which the main characters are usually soldiers. It has much details about military technology, procedures, rituals, and history; and sometimes using parallels with historical conflicts. Examples include Heinlein’s Starship Troopers followed by the Dorsai novels of Gordon Dickson. Prominent military SF authors include David Drake, David Weber, Jerry Pournelle, S. M. Stirling, and Lois McMaster Bujold. Joe Haldeman’s The Forever War , a Vietnam-era response to the World War II-style stories of earlier authors is a critique of the genre. Baen Books cultivates military science fiction authors. Television series within this subgenre include Battlestar Galactica, Stargate SG-1 and Space: Above and Beyond. There is also the popular Halo videogame and novel series.

Related genres include speculative fiction, fantasy, and horror,. alternate histories (which may have no particular scientific or futuristic component), and even literary stories that contain fantastic elements, such as the work of Jorge Luis Borges or John Barth. Magic realism works have also been said to be within the broad definition of speculative fiction.

Fantasy is closely associated with science fiction. Many writers, including Robert A. Heinlein, Poul Anderson, Larry Niven, C. J. Cherryh, C. S. Lewis, Jack Vance, and Lois McMaster Bujold have therefore worked in both genres. Writers such as Anne McCaffrey and Marion Zimmer Bradley have written works that appear to blur the boundary between the two related genres Science Fiction conventions routinely have programming on fantasy topics and fantasy authors such as J. K. Rowling and J. R. R. Tolkien (in film adaptation) have won the highest honor within the science fiction field, the Hugo Award. Larry Niven’s The Magic Goes Away stories treat magic as just another force of nature subject to natural laws which resemble and partially overlap those of physics.

In general, science fiction is the literature of things that might someday be possible, and fantasy is the literature of things that are inherently impossible.with magic and mythology being amongst its popular themes.It is common to see narratives described as being essentially science fiction but «with fantasy elements.» such narratives being termed «science fantasy»..

Horror fiction is literature of the unnatural and supernatural, aimed at unsettling or frightening the reader, sometimes with graphic violence. » Although not a branch of science fiction, its many works incorporates science fictional elements. Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein, is a fully-realized science fiction work , where the manufacture of the monster is given a rigorous science-fictional grounding. The works of Edgar Allan Poe also helped define the science fiction and the horror genres. Today horror is one of the most popular categories of film.

Modernist works from writers like Kurt Vonnegut, Philip K. Dick, and StanisBaw Lem bordering Science Fiction and the mainstream.have focused on speculative or existential perspectives on contemporary reality. According to Robert J. Sawyer, «Science fiction and mystery have a great deal in common. Both prize the intellectual process of puzzle solving, and both require stories to be plausible and hinge on the way things really do work.» Isaac Asimov, Anthony Boucher, Walter Mosley, and other writers incorporate mystery elements in their science fiction, and vice versa.

Superhero fiction is a genre characterized by beings with hyper physical or mental prowess, generally with a desire or need to help the citizens of their chosen country or world by using their powers to defeat natural or supernatural threats. Many superhero fictional characters have involved themselves (either intentionally or accidentally) with science fiction and fact, including advanced technologies, alien worlds, time travel, and interdimensional travel; but the standards of scientific plausibility are lower than with actual science fiction.

Some of the best-known authors of this genre include Stan Lee, Keith R. A. DeCandido, Diane Duane, Peter David, Len Wein, Marv Wolfman, George R. R. Martin, Pierce Askegren, Christopher Golden, Dean Wesley Smith, Greg Cox, Nancy Collins, C. J. Cherryh, Roger Stern, and Elliot S! Maggin.

As a means of understanding the world through speculation and storytelling, science fiction has antecedents back to mythology, though precursors to science fiction as literature began to emerge from the 13th century (Ibn al-Nafis, Theologus Autodidactus) to the 17th century (the real Cyrano de Bergerac with «Voyage de la Terre à la Lune» and «Des états de la Lune et du Soleil») and the Age of Reason with the development of science itself. Voltaire’s Micromégas was one of the first, together with Jonathan Swift’s «Gulliver’s Travels. Following the 18th century development of the novel as a literary form, in the early 19th century, Mary Shelley’s books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science fiction novel] later Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story about a flight to the moon. More examples appeared throughout the 19th century. Then with the dawn of new technologies such as electricity, the telegraph, and new forms of powered transportation, writers like Jules Verne and H. G. Wells created a body of work that became popular across broad cross-sections of society. In the late 19th century the term «scientific romance» was used in Britain to describe much of this fiction. This produced additional offshoots, such as the 1884 novella Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions by Edwin Abbott Abbott. The term would continue to be used into the early 20th century for writers such as Olaf Stapledon.

In the early 20th century, pulp magazines helped develop a new generation of mainly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of Amazing Stories magazine. In the late 1930s, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction. A critical mass of new writers emerged in New York City. Called the Futurians, This group included Isaac Asimov, Damon Knight, Donald A. Wollheim, Frederik Pohl, James Blish and Judith Merril. Other important writers during this period included Robert A. Heinlein, Arthur C. Clarke, and A. E. Van Vogt. Campbell’s tenure at Astounding is considered to be the beginning of the Golden Age of science fiction, characterized by hard SF stories celebrating scientific achievement and progress. This lasted until postwar technological advances, new magazines like Galaxy under Pohl as editor, and a new generation of writers began writing stories outside the Campbell mode.

In the 1950s, the Beat generation included speculative writers like William S. Burroughs. In the 1960s and early 1970s, writers like Frank Herbert, Samuel R. Delany, Roger Zelazny, and Harlan Ellison explored new trends, ideas, and writing styles, as was a a group of writers, mainly in Britain, who became known as the New Wave. In the 1970s, writers like Larry Niven and Poul Anderson began to redefine hard SF while Ursula K. Le Guin and others pioneered soft science fiction.

In the 1980s, cyberpunk authors like William Gibson turned away from the traditional optimism and support for the progress of traditional science fiction. Star Wars helped spark a new interest in space opera, focusing more on story and character than on scientific accuracy. C. J. Cherryh’s detailed explorations of alien life and complex scientific challenges influenced a generation of writers.

Emerging themes in the 1990s included environmental issues, the implications of the global Internet and the expanding information universe, questions about biotechnology and nanotechnology, as well as a post-Cold War interest in post-scarcity societies; Neal Stephenson’s The Diamond Age comprehensively explores these themes. Lois McMaster Bujold’s Vorkosigan novels brought the character-driven story back into prominence.

The Next Generation began a torrent of new SF shows, of which Babylon 5 was among the most highly acclaimed in the decade. There was also the television series Star Trek. :A general concern about the rapid pace of technological change crystallized around the concept of the technological singularity, popularized by Vernor Vinge’s novel Marooned in Realtime and then taken up by other authors. Television shows like Buffy the Vampire Slayer and films like The Lord of the Ring created new interest in all the speculative genres in films, television, computer games, and books. According to Alan Laughlin, the Harry Potter stories have been very popular among young readers, increasing literacy rates worldwide

While SF has provided criticism of developing and future technologies, it also produces innovation and new technology. The discussion of this topic has occurred more in literary and sociological than in scientific forums.

Cinema and media theorist Vivian Sobchack examines the dialogue between science fiction film and the technological imagination. Technology does impact how artists portray their fictionalized subjects, but the fictional world gives back to science by broadening imagination. While more prevalent in the beginning years of science fiction with writers like Isaac Asimov, Robert A. Heinlein, Frank Walker and Arthur C. Clarke, new authors like Michael Crichton still find ways to make the currently impossible technologies seem so close to being realized]

This has also been notably documented in the field of nanotechnology with University of Ottawa Professor José Lopez’s article «Bridging the Gaps: Science Fiction in Nanotechnology.» Lopez links both theoretical premises of science fiction worlds and the operation of nanotechnologies.

Science fiction has brought in the primacy of technology as a culture making it otherwise called ‘technoculture’ which in literature describes a new proximity between the author and technology. From the computer code accompanying the text of Laurie Anderson’s stories from the Nerve Bible to the metaphors of binary computer logic used by Thomas Pynchon in The Crying of Lot 49 to the full partnership of computer and authorship represented by hypertext fiction, many recent literary developments suggest a shift in paradigm linking creativity with the telecommunications machine that now facilitate- and mediate – human contact. This has also resuscitated science fiction as an experimental literary genre that has for over three decades being producing compelling dystopian visions, social allegories, and innovative variations on traditional forms of fantasy. constituting a new and powerful engagement with technology as a social and creative force.

The possibilities just as the dangers of technologies are immense. The present day technologies might be used by women and other historically disenfranchised groups as tools to embody and enforce new social relations. In Feral Lasers Gerald Vizenor’s crossblood trickster technician Almost Browne harnesses first-world technology to produce holographic laser light shows that project the ghosts of the past over the landscapes of the Quidnunc reservation and urban Detroit. And Almost Browne asserts the cause of light rights in the courtroom where he is being tried for causing a public disturbance,whilst people inspired by him deploy the lasers to revise histories to hold their memories, and to create a new wilderness over the interstates.

Camisetas CHAQUETAS Echa un vistazo a nuestra variedad de camisetas de equipos de fútbol. Camisetas de entreno y partido de clubes nacionales y selecciones internacionales.

¡Qué dulce fue! La tienda de dulces de la esquina

«Qué dulce es», anuncia el letrero que da la bienvenida a los viajeros al distrito actual de Brooklyn. Cualquier adulto que pasó su antaño en los años cincuenta reconoce estas palabras bramadas por Ralph Kramden, el intrigante conductor de autobús de Ciudad Gótica que conducía a mediados de la década en una popular serie televisiva conocida como The Honeymooners. Igualmente memorable para los niños de esa década pasada por su dulzura y popularidad es la tienda de dulces de la esquina. Hoy, Sharon Johnson (maestra jubilada de Filadelfia) y autodenominada «niña de corazón» recuerda con nostalgia cómo creció en Muskegon, Michigan, y el papel que jugaron las tiendas de golosinas en su infancia. Lee-lee como Alice, una trabajadora de la tienda de dulces Brinks, apodada cariñosamente Sharon, describe Muskegon como un pequeño pueblo obrero con varias tiendas de dulces que competían por los centavos y cinco centavos de los escolares. Brinks se paró en la esquina de las calles Apple y Scott frente a la escuela primaria pública. Alice vendía caramelos de centavo y de cinco centavos, y en Navidad se disfrazaba de Santa Claus. Brinks también sirvió comida.

Los niños socializaban en el parque o en el patio de la escuela. Cuando se le pidió que nombrara su dulce favorito, Sharon hizo una pausa por un momento y dijo: «Supongo que todos. Pero a veces tengo antojo de ruedas de regaliz y barriles de cerveza de raíz». Los psicólogos sugieren que los viajes nostálgicos frecuentes por el camino de la memoria no son solo las indulgencias derrochadoras de una persona mayor, sino que contribuyen de manera positiva a la salud mental. La autora Marina Krakovsky señala: «Esa reminiscencia puede ser más saludable de lo que piensas. A pesar del rap agridulce de la nostalgia y el consejo que se escucha con frecuencia de vivir el momento, los estudios sugieren que el desvío ocasional por el carril de la memoria puede darle un impulso significativo a tu espíritu». (Revista Psychology Today, mayo/junio de 2006) Según investigadores de la Universidad de Loyola, las estancias de solo 20 minutos al día en los viejos tiempos pueden tener el beneficio de brindarle una perspectiva alegre. Al crecer con un padre que era conductor de autobús y un doble de Kramden, me convertí en un frecuentador de las tiendas de dulces.

Una tienda ocupa un lugar más importante en mi memoria que otras. Nino’s estaba ubicado en la esquina de East 58th Street y Avenue N en una sección de Brooklyn conocida como Mill Basin. Era equidistante de mi casa y de María Reina del Cielo, la escuela primaria parroquial a la que asistía. La tienda atrajo a los niños del vecindario de familias obreras en su camino hacia y desde la escuela. Durante el almuerzo, Nino’s se llenó con los uniformes de los escolares católicos ansiosos por gastar sus asignaciones Biggio, Candy Store,2 o las ganancias de cobrar en botellas de depósito para satisfacer su ansia de dulces. Gracioso, nunca recuerdo haber visto adultos en la tienda de dulces. Los adultos pasaban la hora del almuerzo consumiendo comida para adultos en el luncheonette de Sam o en la tienda de delicatessen de John. Nino, el dueño y homónimo de la tienda, atendía a sus clientes vendiendo una variedad de artículos. Había útiles escolares como cuadernos de canicas, blocs de tareas (¡Egad! en la jerga escolar actual agendas) y hojas sueltas.

Hubo favores para mamás de última hora que habían olvidado artículos para la fiesta de Timmy o Sally. En la parte trasera de la tienda se podía encontrar un montón de juguetes de metal baratos (ahora coleccionables caros) estampados hechos en Japón. Un estante en el centro de la tienda estaba repleto de cómics. Superman, Casper y Wendy, Archie, Jughead dieron vueltas mientras los niños buscaban sus favoritos. Los compañeros de clase más académicos pasaron por alto a los superhéroes para una serie conocida como Classics Illustrated. Los ilustradores transformaron obras clásicas como Ivanhoe, Three Musketeers y Robinson Caruso en formato de cómic. La mayoría de los niños iban a Nino’s no por útiles escolares, juguetes o historietas. Iban a satisfacer sus antojos de dulces ya socializar con amigos.

Los ojos se abrieron, los pequeños dedos señalaron los caramelos de centavo y níquel encerrados en una caja de vidrio. Botones de caramelos de todos los colores y sabores salpicados de tiras de papel, muchas veces el papel y el caramelo eran inseparables. Los Jawbreakers y el chicle Bazooka tenían que disfrutarse antes de volver a la escuela. Cualquier malhechor sorprendido mascando chicle en clase recibía una mirada severa o un castigo peor por parte de las hermanas dominicas. Candy no solo puede ser dulce sino divertido. Recuerde los grandes labios de cera roja y la encía con forma de cigarro, incluso con un anillo de aspecto auténtico. Cuando éramos niños, masticábamos dulces o cigarrillos de chocolate en cajas o estuches que se parecían a los reales que nuestros padres fumaban. «Encuéntrame en Nino’s después de la escuela» se decían unos a otros adolescentes cuando salían de la infancia para pasar el rato en la fuente. La fuente era una magnífica obra de arte hecha de madera brillante y mármol que envolvía sus costados. En la fuente, Nino creó helados sundaes, splits y flotadores. Todo el helado fue bañado a mano.

No había refrescos enlatados en la tienda. Nino mezclaba agua mineral con jarabes. Los niños bebían sus coca-colas de cereza, rickies de lima y cremas de huevo mientras pasaban los años en esos taburetes. Históricamente, la tienda de dulces formaba parte del paisaje urbano. La tienda de dulces de mamá y papá capturada en una imagen de Norman Rockwell existe en nuestros recuerdos. Es una pieza de Americana reemplazada por supermercados y tiendas gourmet especializadas. Si tiene ganas de comer dulces tradicionales, pruebe las tiendas de dulces en línea o, si no le importa lo retro, pruebe la cadena de restaurantes Cracker Barrel. La próxima vez que te sientas un poco triste, toma una rueda de regaliz, enciende Nickelodeon, disfruta de un episodio de The Honeymooners y reflexiona con el conductor del autobús de Brooklyn sobre «Qué dulce es».

Trabajos citados:

Krakovski, Marina. «Nostalgia: Dulce Recuerdo». (Psychology Today, mayo/junio de 2006. Última revisión 11 de octubre de 2007, artículo ID 4077).

Sitios web de dulces a la antigua




Cómo hacer una crema de huevo de Brooklyn

Ingredientes: leche entera, jarabe de chocolate, agua mineral


Cuchara en un jarabe de chocolate de vidrio

Llena el fondo del vaso con leche fría.

Llena el resto del vaso con agua mineral

Mueva una cuchara hacia arriba y hacia abajo, mezclando los ingredientes.


Camisetas REAL BETIS Echa un vistazo a nuestra variedad de camisetas de equipos de fútbol. Camisetas de entreno y partido de clubes nacionales y selecciones internacionales.

Enrique Polic II (1945-2013)

Henry Polic II (20 de febrero de 1945 – 11 de agosto de 2013) fue un actor estadounidense de cine, teatro y doblaje, y fue mejor conocido en Webster como Jerry Silver.

En la década de 1980, Henry Polic II fue visto con frecuencia como un jugador invitado popular en numerosos programas de juegos. Sus espacios como invitado más habituales fueron en las diversas manifestaciones de Pyramids, ya que apareció muchas veces en Pyramid of the $ 25,000 y Dick Clark, así como en las versiones de John Davidson de Pyramid of the $ 100,000 para el productor Bob Stewart. Henry Polic también realizó innumerables otros trabajos, además de presentar el programa de juegos de 1986 Double Talk, el piloto revival eye Q de 1988 y anuncios de tareas compartidas con Dean Goss y Johnny Gilbert en la pirámide de $ 100,000. Las especialidades de Polic incluían acentos regionales y extranjeros, canto de barítono y bailes de salón.

Desde principios de la década de 1990 hasta su muerte, Henry Polic fue posiblemente más conocido en Batman como la primera voz británica con acento del Espantapájaros: la serie animada. Inicialmente, tenía un tono de voz profundo y enojado, pero finalmente hizo que su voz fuera más alta para adaptarse al papel. Mientras trabajaba en la Universidad Estatal de Florida, Henry Polic actuó como invitado en la Escuela de Producción de Teatro en una producción de Cuento de Navidad, en la que en 1996 actuó como Scrooge. Además del programa de juegos de Henry Polic, también presentó Double Talk de 1986 a 1987.

El veterano actor Henry Polic II, actuó como el Sheriff de Nottingham en la serie Mel Brooks, y también cuando Things Were Rotten al igual que Jerry Silver en Webster, falleció a los 68 años, luego de una larga enfermedad con cáncer.

Henry Polic era un conocido jugador de programas de juegos, que aparecía con frecuencia en la Pirámide de $ 25,000 y su eventual manifestación, la Pirámide de $ 100,000, de la cual Polic junto con Dick Clark fueron los anfitriones. Además, Henry también fue presentador de un programa de juegos y también dirigió el programa Double Talk de ABC de 1986. Además de ser un popular presentador de programas de juegos, Henry Polic actuó brevemente como Drácula en la serie Monster Squad de la década de 1970 de NBC y apareció como invitado en numerosos programas, incluidos Mork & Mindy, Alice, Eight Is Enough, Sheena, Murder, She Wrote, así como como Salvados por la campana. Además del trabajo de Polic en Batman, prestó su voz a la serie Los Pitufos y otras series como los Duques y la patrulla de medianoche, así como a la pandilla de los días felices.

En Webster, Henry Polic actuó como Jerry Silver, un confidente y secretario de Katherine (Susan Clark), que tuvo 54 episodios de toda la serie y se desarrolló entre 1983 y 1989 en ABC y en sindicato.

Nacido en 1945 en Pittsburgh, Henry Polic fue a la Universidad Estatal de Florida y obtuvo su maestría en actuación. Después de graduarse, se alistó y se colocó en Kansas Fort Riley, y luego se conectó con el Tent Theatre de Missouri y el Player’s Theatre de Miami, por mencionar solo algunos. A principios de la década de 1970, Henry Polic se mudó a Los Ángeles, donde hizo su debut en la televisión como el Sheriff de Nottingham en 1975 y también en la comedia When Things Were Rotten, que presentaba a Richard Gautier como Robin Hood.

Henry Polic también tuvo créditos cinematográficos que incluyeron, Joan Rivers de 1978, Beau Geste Last Remake de 1977, Oh, God! Libro II, luego Bring Him Home de 2000 y, por último, All You Need de 2001. Henry Polic apareció en más de 70 producciones locales y regionales, incluido el estreno mundial del éxito musical de Broadway Sister Act, en el que inició el papel de Monseñor Howard. Otros créditos teatrales en los que Polic también actuó fueron la producción de 1776 de Civic Light Long Beach, West’s Never Gonna Dance Music Theatre, Putting It Together, Is This Your Life y el estreno mundial de producción de A Couple of Guys at the Movies. Los créditos de dirección teatral de Henry Polic incluyen Fools for the Actors Cooperative en Hollywood, así como el Ventura Rubicon Theatre; el estreno mundial de Jim Geoghan de Two Gentlemen of Corona; La producción de estreno mundial de Nebraska; tanto la producción de bodas del condado de Brine de Nueva York como la de Los Ángeles; y una producción récord de taquilla de Drácula.

Polic fue presentador de eventos y subastador de celebridades, que durante el año ayudó a recaudar más de $ 2 millones para organizaciones benéficas como Foundation Concern for Cancer Research, Adam Walsh Foundation, Diabetes Association of American y Foundation for Leukemia. Polic impartió una clase de actuación para la cámara en Los Ángeles Emerson College Center y también impartió un curso de actuación en la Academia de Artes Dramáticas Estadounidenses. Henry Polic también fue miembro de The Fund Actors desde 1973 y miembro de una organización del consejo occidental, que lo reconoció con el estatus de emérito. Además, se fundó un fondo conmemorativo de becas a nombre de Henry Polic dentro del Estado de Florida que proporciona fondos para ayudar a producir nuevas obras anuales para las Escuelas de Teatro.

Henry Polic II es un rostro común entre el público por sus diversos papeles en el cine, la televisión y el teatro, y también lo es por su aclamado trabajo como director de teatro. Henry Polic era un apasionado de su trabajo en el teatro y algunos de sus créditos como actor incluyeron papeles regulares en las comedias de Webster, así como en las series de televisión clásicas. Además, ha tenido muchos papeles de estrella invitada, como los episodios de Sheena, She Spies, Cosby, noticias de radio y Profiler. Además de los créditos de actuación, Henry Polic también tiene créditos cinematográficos, que incluyen All you need, Beau Geste Last Remake, the trail of the old, Bring Him Home, Oh God, Book II, Drum y Rabbit test, una comedia de Joan River.

A continuación se muestra una lista detallada de las obras más famosas de Henry Polic:

•CRÉDITOS – Apariciones en escenarios

  • Servicio de habitaciones, 1987
  • A Christmas Carol Scrooge, Escuela de Teatro, Universidad Estatal de Florida, 1996
  • Polic también apareció en The Last Pad; Chicos en la Banda, Chicos en la Banda; una producción de Broadway; El fantástico; Hombre de La Mancha; Pal Joey y 1776, ¿Es esta tu vida? Ópera cívica ligera Long Beach; Teatro Tamarindo.

•CRÉDITOS – Dirección escénica

  • Boda de Brine Country, 1996

•Apariciones en películas

  • Capitán, última versión de Beau Geste, 1977
  • Búsqueda del tesoro, policía desnudo, 1979
  • (Él mismo) ¡Oh, Dios! Psiquiatra 5, Libro II, 1980
  • Tarlow Stephen, Doble problema, 1992
  • James/MacBeth, La obra de Scott, 1999
  • Tráelo a casa, 2000
  • Todo lo que necesitas Sr. Etheridge, 2001
  • La Valeta, 2002
  • Button the King, ¿te mentiría? , 2002

•Apariciones en Televisión – Series

  • (debut televisivo) Nottingham Sheriff y When Things Were Rotten, 1975
  • Espectáculo Bert regular, de verano y otoño, 1976
  • Yo Yogi, 1991
  • El escuadrón de monstruos, el conde Drácula, 1976-1977
  • Jerry Silver, Webster, 1983-1987
  • Combustión, 2004
  • Morton y Hayes, 1991
  • Voz de The All-New Scooby y Scrappy-Doo Show, 1983, (animado).
  • Presentador de programas de entrevistas, Double Talk/Celebrity Double Talk, 1986
  • El show de niños de Tom y Jerry 1990
  • Locutor secundario, La pirámide de $ 100,000, sindicado, 1992
  • Potsworth y compañía, 1990
  • Caos de Hollywood, 1989
  • Súper contraseña, 1994
  • Lenguaje corporal, 1984
  • Alicia, 1977

•Mini series

  • Mark Steiner, Escrúpulos, 1981


  • I Yabba-Dabba Do, voz, 1993 (animación)
  • Doc Thompson, Animal Planet, la ruta del viejo tambor, 2000


  • Los ángeles del diablo, 1976
  • Banda de McNamara, Schnell, 1977


  • Sobrevivir a la década de 1970 y quizás encontrar la felicidad, 1978
  • Voices of the Wolf Leader and Tracker, Especial de Navidad de Los Pitufos (animado), 1986
  • La fiesta de la cinta amarilla de Bob Hope, 1991


  • Hombre, La mujer biónica, 1976
  • El fracaso, Walter, 1977
  • El ladrón de joyas/Quiero casarme, Marty, 1978
  • «La guerra entre los Bradford», Ocho es suficiente, 1978
  • Dra. Phillips, 1979
  • Hurra por Bulgaria, 1979
  • Donald, El increíble Hulk, 1980
  • Pierre, «La persona que llama / Matrimonio de conveniencia / Sin niñas / Testigo de la acusación», The Boat of Love , 1980
  • Redding Jay, «Airline Bag of Maltese», Ocho es suficiente, 1980
  • «Guinness de barril», 1981
  • Bors, «El volcán/marido perfecto», 1981
  • Frederick, «Lo muy raro de los vinos», 1982
  • Francois, Ladrones de la belleza, Lacey y Cagney, 1982
  • Randy Turner, «Sabemos cuándo detenerlos», 1983
  • A mi manera, Ivo, Urgencias, 1984
  • Arma tímido, 1983
  • Urgencias, Dr. Raja, 1984
  • Stern Roy, Hotel, Ilusiones, 1985
  • Invitado, La pirámide de los 100.000 dólares, 1985
  • Dupree Alan, «los incendios domésticos siguen ardiendo», Murder, She Wrote, 1986
  • Obispo Arthur, «The Old Grand Lady», Murder, She Wrote, 1989
  • «Algo nuevo, algo viejo», Brothers, sindicado, 1989
  • Voz del alcalde de la ciudad, «For Who the Bells Klang: 2» (animación), Tale Spin sindicado, 1990
  • Vincent Val, «Hair Today, and Gone Tomorrow», Eran de fuera del espacio, 1991
  • «Daffy Dicks», Maitre’d, Hayes y Morton, 1991
  • Cuarto oscuro, 1982
  • La voz del Espantapájaros/Jonathan Crane, Fear Nothing, Batman (animación; también llamada Adventures of Batman and Robin, así como Batman: The Series Animation), 1992
  • La voz del Espantapájaros/Jonathan Crane, Miedo a la victoria, Batman (animación; también llamada Aventuras de Batman y Robin, así como Batman: La animación de la serie), 1992
  • La voz del Espantapájaros/Jonathan Crane, Dreams within the Darkness, Batman (animación; también llamada Adventures of Batman & Robin así como Batman: The series animation), 1992
  • Sr. Bainbridge Salvados por la campana, «Blancanieves y los siete tontos», 1992
  • La voz del Espantapájaros/Jonathan Crane en Las vacaciones de Harley, Batman (animación; también llamada Aventuras de Batman y Robin, así como Batman: La serie de animación), 1994
  • Escuela de detectives, 1979
  • La voz del Espantapájaros / Jonathan Crane en Lock-Up, Batman (animación; también llamada The Adventures of Batman & Robin, así como Batman: The series animation), 1994
  • Verne Jules, Ochenta brazos alrededor del mundo, Mighty Max, 1994
  • Richard, La crisis de los tres quilates, Profiler, 1999
  • Isla de la fantasía, 1978 – 1981
  • Sheena, Wild Thing, sindicato, 2000
  • Prueba de conejo, 1978
  • Superhombre, 1988
  • La extraña pareja nueva, 1982
  • Osborne Michael, She Spies, Gone Bad, sindicato, 2003
  • Henry Polic apareció como primer hombre, voz; Golden Palace, aventuras de Don Coyote y Sancho Panda (animación), sindicato; ¡Yo! voz de yogui; (animación); y como voz de, SuperTed (animación).

•Trabajo en Televisión

  • Voces adicionales, Scooby y Scrappy-Doo (animación), ABC, 1979
  • Voces adicionales, The Smurfs (animación; también conocido como aventuras de Smurf), 1981


En resumen, Henry Polic II, personalidad televisiva durante cerca de cuarenta años, falleció a los 68 años. El actor comenzó su carrera en 1975 con ABC, en la que actuó como el Sheriff de Nottingham. Más tarde continuó y actuó brevemente como Drácula en la serie de la década de 1970 Monster Squad y más tarde apareció como estrella invitada en una docena de programas, como Mork and Mindy, Saved by the Bell, Alice, Eight Is Enough, Sheena y Murder. Ella escribió.

Actuando en varios papeles secundarios, Henry Polic siguió siendo un rostro popular de la televisión para las generaciones estadounidenses desde la década de 1970 hasta su muerte. Además, pasó a alcanzar el estatus principal para niños y adultos por igual durante su período como la voz principal del Dr. Jonathan Crane/Scarecrow en Batman: la serie de animación.

Cuando se trataba de opiniones, las opiniones de la gente eran muy similares en el sentido de que cuando se trataba de hacer doblajes, Henry Polic II era excepcional y, en general, se lo consideraba un buen actor en todos los sentidos. Además de todas estas notables credenciales, Henry Polic era un concursante muy conocido del programa de juegos, habiendo aparecido en Pyramid of $25 000 y en ediciones posteriores. A lo largo de su carrera, Henry Polic nunca se limitó a un perfil público en particular o específico, y aunque sus papeles generalmente se limitaron a papeles secundarios, rara vez apareció en tipos similares de categorías dentro de la televisión y el cine más de una docena de veces.

Lamentablemente, la vida y la carrera del actor fueron de corta duración debido a una enfermedad. Fue el cáncer lo que acabó con el de Henry Polic. Henry Polic murió a los 68 años en Sherman Oaks, California, y le sobrevivieron su hermana, un sobrino y dos sobrinas.

Camisetas BUNDESLIGA Echa un vistazo a nuestra variedad de camisetas de equipos de fútbol. Camisetas de entreno y partido de clubes nacionales y selecciones internacionales.

Cómo los pastores de libros pueden ayudar a los autores

Recomiendo a los autores que busquen contratar a un pastor de libros para un proyecto de escritura y publicación actual o futuro. Un pastor de libros es alguien cuya experiencia en libros y publicaciones lo ayudará durante todo el proceso del libro. Desde la portada, la edición, el trato con Amazon hasta la ubicación de una imprenta, un pastor de libros lo ayudará de principio a fin.

Soy partidario de utilizar un pastor de libros porque hay tantas cosas que saber sobre el proceso de publicación de libros y tanto está cambiando rápidamente que es extremadamente difícil mantenerse al día con todo. Se necesita una persona con experiencia para guiarte en el camino y eso es lo que hace un pastor de libros. Contratar un guía es un concepto que ha estado funcionando para la humanidad durante miles de años. Si fueras a un país extranjero y quisieras ver y hacer todo lo que pudieras, ¿leerías una guía o contratarías a alguien para que te muestre? Considérese afortunado si puede pagar un pastor de libros, ya que vale la pena el dinero gastado.

Dan Poynter compiló recientemente una lista completa de pastores de libros. En la parte superior de su lista está Shel Horowitz, quien explica su papel: «Básicamente, guío a los escritores inéditos a través del proceso de convertirse en autores bien publicados. Comienzo ayudándolos a determinar si deben publicar tradicionalmente, autopublicar o subvencionar la publicación». –y luego ayúdelos a completar todos los pasos de su elección, luego trabaje con ellos en el marketing a medida que el libro se acerca a su finalización».

Tanya Hall es una pastora de libros única en el sentido de que trabaja para una editorial/distribuidora nacional. «Entonces, en lugar de trabajar en el vacío sin comentarios actualizados sobre tendencias, lanzamientos, etc., como operan la mayoría de los pastores de libros, tengo el lujo de una fuerza de ventas y un equipo de expertos detrás de mí para guiar la dirección que doy a mis clientes. La mayoría de nuestros clientes «en desarrollo» pasan por una fase de desarrollo de proyecto editorial, seguida de una serie de servicios que van desde el diseño hasta la impresión (si nuestro comité de revisión los acepta para publicación/distribución) distribución y marketing».

Mike Ball, columnista sindicado ganador de premios y autor de tres libros, ofrece asistencia única a los nuevos autores desde su posición en el frente de batalla de las guerras editoriales. «Oye, puede ser complicado, lento y francamente confuso», dice Ball. «Acabo de ayudar a un autor anciano que quedó completamente desconcertado por los formularios que Amazon le envió. Entiendo que puede ser una tarea abrumadora para cualquiera. Por eso estoy feliz de ayudar por una tarifa razonable por hora».

Simon Warwick-Smith dice: «Somos una ventanilla única, desde el diseño de portadas e interiores hasta la impresión física y los libros electrónicos, las ventas, el marketing y la publicidad. Hemos estado en el negocio durante 20 años con una larga lista de clientes satisfechos».

«Uno de los mayores desafíos al escribir, publicar y comercializar un libro es saber qué hacer, cuándo y cómo dar cada paso», dice Beth Barany, pastora de libros, consultora de negocios creativos para autores y editores, y ganadora de premios. novelista ganador. Beth dice que los autores acuden a ella porque necesitan apoyo personalizado para cualquier parte del proceso en el que se encuentren, ya sea en sesiones de intercambio de ideas para superar el bloqueo del escritor para escribir una novela, descubrir cómo publicar su útil libro de no ficción u obtener apoyo y ganar facilidad. con el marketing en redes sociales para su novela de misterio. Gran defensora de la autoedición, trabaja con sus autores para ayudarlos a escribir, publicar y comercializar el libro a través de los canales que tengan más sentido para sus objetivos generales, tiempo y presupuesto, incluida la publicación tradicional. Para obtener más información sobre Beth Barany e inscribirse en una sesión gratuita de 30 minutos.

El resultado final: si puede permitirse gastar de unos cientos a unos miles de dólares en un pastor de libros, le sugiero que lo haga, ¡ya que le ayudará a salvar su cordura! Hay tantos cambios emocionantes en el negocio de la publicación de libros que es prácticamente imposible mantenerse al día con todos ellos. El pastor de libros lo ayudará durante todo el proceso o solo una parte del proceso donde lo necesite.

Camisetas Juventus Echa un vistazo a nuestra variedad de camisetas de equipos de fútbol. Camisetas de entreno y partido de clubes nacionales y selecciones internacionales.

Comercialización de su libro

Si bien no es necesario que tenga planeados todos los detalles de sus estrategias de marketing cuando comience a escribir su libro, cuanto antes comience a crear esta parte de su plataforma, mejor.

Eventos de oratoria

Cuando apareces en eventos, puedes difundir el evangelio sobre tu libro. Si está físicamente en contacto con el público, puede vender copias de su libro. Cuando la gente te ve y te conoce, con frecuencia compran tu libro. Si da discursos, tiene casi garantizado vender sus libros porque en la mayoría de los eventos, sus libros estarán disponibles para la venta. Sin embargo, cuando intenta publicitar su libro a través de los medios, vender libros es más dudoso.

Aprende a convertirte en un orador consumado porque hablar es una plataforma importante para vender libros. Planifique con anticipación, al principio del proceso de escritura del libro. Comience a hablar por lo menos seis meses a un año antes de que se publique su libro, para generar interés en él y desarrollar su habilidad para hablar y su reputación.

Si no es un orador establecido, tome clases de oratoria o capacitación en medios. Únase a las organizaciones de oradores. Luego hable gratis para organizaciones locales donde puede pulir su oficio. Empieza pequeño y trabaja hacia arriba; construir un seguimiento y una reputación de ser un orador dinámico, entretenido y esclarecedor. Los eventos de la cámara de comercio cuentan habitualmente con autores de negocios. Haga arreglos con los dueños de librerías que son miembros de la cámara para vender sus libros en los eventos.

Hable también con ramas locales de la industria o grupos profesionales. Si ha escrito un libro sobre ventas o creación de redes, podría hablar en las reuniones de Sales and Marketing Executives International o de la American Marketing Association. Trate de construir su base donde vive y trabaja porque los miembros de la comunidad donde comenzó se convertirán en sus más fieles seguidores.

Cuando se convierta en un orador consumado, recopile cintas de video de sus presentaciones, testimonios, una descripción del discurso y su biografía de manera profesional. Luego, regístrese con tantas oficinas de oradores como sea posible para obtener reservas. Las principales oficinas incluyen la Oficina Internacional de Oradores, Leading Authority, Inc., la Oficina de Leigh y la Oficina de Oradores de Washington.

Autor 101 Consejos

Una estrategia poderosa para lanzar su libro es reducir su tarifa con la condición de que la organización anfitriona compense la diferencia comprando copias de su libro. Por ejemplo, si normalmente cobra $5,000 por un discurso de apertura, reduzca su tarifa a la mitad y tome $2,500 si la organización anfitriona accede a gastar la otra mitad en la compra de $2,500 de su libro.

Los beneficios que recibe son que tiene garantizados $2,500 en ventas de libros que no serán devueltos y más de sus libros entrarán en circulación. Hacer que los libros circulen genera publicidad de boca en boca, que debería ser su principal objetivo porque cada libro en manos de un lector es un embajador y un publicista para usted y su libro. Si usted es un orador establecido, puede permitirse el lujo de tomar menos dinero en efectivo para mover más copias de su libro. Cuando emplea esta estrategia en varias apariciones personales, puede generar ventas sustanciales de libros y una excelente publicidad.

Conéctese con 800-CEO-READ, un minorista de libros de negocios en línea que vende libros al mercado corporativo. Presentará su libro en su boletín informativo y en su sitio web y solicitará pedidos masivos de su libro a corporaciones. 800-CEO-READ se encargará de que las copias de sus libros estén disponibles en sus apariciones públicas, eventos y charlas. Todas las ventas realizadas por 800-CEO-READ se informan en muchas de las principales listas de éxitos de ventas. O revíselo o compruébelo con su editor.

Explosiones de correo electrónico

Los envíos masivos de correo electrónico son campañas destinadas a convertir los libros en bestsellers con libreros en línea. Los envíos masivos de correo electrónico funcionan bien con ciertos libros de negocios, especialmente los libros de motivación. Los incentivos que pueden ser parte del paquete incluyen cintas de audio, videos, libros o capítulos de libros, listas de recursos, cursos, suscripciones a boletines o seminarios gratuitos o con descuento.

Una variación de la explosión de correo electrónico que funciona bien para los libros de negocios es lo que llamamos una explosión de conciencia. Esta explosión está destinada a brindar información y conciencia, no obsequios. Por ejemplo, si su libro de marketing está dirigido a ejecutivos de nivel C (directores ejecutivos, directores de información y directores financieros), probablemente no desee realizar obsequios porque son demasiado engañosos para su audiencia. Entonces, en su lugar, compra una lista de ejecutivos de nivel C de Business Week y luego envía un correo electrónico o una carta de ventas generales para informarles sobre su nuevo libro. Puede incluir respaldos de alto nivel, reseñas favorables e incluso extractos. El costo de comprar listas bien dirigidas puede ser alto, pero puede permitirle llegar a una audiencia precisa.

Como mencionamos en nuestra discusión sobre los sitios web de los autores, la captura de nombres y direcciones de correo electrónico es un objetivo principal de dichos sitios. Si adquiere suficientes nombres y direcciones, puede realizar su propio envío masivo de correos electrónicos y enviar otras promociones a las personas que sabe que tienen algún interés en usted y en su libro.


Algunos libros de negocios se prestan a campañas creativas. Uno que tuvo mucho éxito fue el concurso Best Boss/Worst Boss que desarrolló Planned Television Arts para promover The Corporate Coach: How to Build a Team of Loyal Customers and Happy Employees de James B. Miller, director ejecutivo de Miller Business Systems (HarperBusiness, 1994).

El concurso, que se promovió durante la gira de veinte ciudades de Miller, invitó a los empleados a presentar ensayos que describieran a sus mejores y peores jefes. El ganador del gran premio en cada categoría recibió un viaje a Hawái. El concurso generó muchas entrevistas adicionales para Miller durante su gira, así como ubicaciones nacionales, incluidas tres con Associated Press. Tanto Today Show como The Osgood File presentaron a los ganadores del concurso y el libro de Miller. Curiosamente, el ganador del peor jefe apareció disfrazado.

El concurso de Miller fue tan popular que realizó concursos similares durante otros dos años. También utilizó material obtenido de los concursos para escribir otro libro, Best Boss, Worst Boss: Lessons and Laughs from the International «Best Boss/Worst Boss» Contests (Summit Publishing Group, 1997).

Cualquier autor emprendedor debería considerar seriamente realizar un concurso. Con Internet, no es difícil.

Listas de los más vendidos

New York Times (mensual)

Semana laboral (mensual)

Negocios del diario de Wall Street

EE.UU. Hoy en día

Para hacer listas de éxitos de ventas semanales, generalmente necesita vender al menos 3.000 copias por semana, y para listas mensuales, 10.000 copias por mes.

Llegar a la lista de los más vendidos de negocios es una cuestión de velocidad; se trata de cuántos libros vende en una semana o mes en particular, no de sus ventas acumuladas. Es un sprint, no un maratón. Por lo tanto, cree su estrategia de campaña de libros para vender tantos libros en el menor período de tiempo posible con el fin de generar la máxima cantidad de ventas reportadas durante ese tiempo. Para crear el mayor impacto, orqueste todos sus esfuerzos publicitarios para que se unan durante ese período de tiempo: sus compromisos de oratoria, artículo de opinión, su envío masivo de correos electrónicos y sus pedidos corporativos. Si sus esfuerzos de promoción y las ventas de su libro se distribuyen en un período de meses, será menos probable que aparezca en las listas de los más vendidos.

Las únicas cifras de ventas que se utilizan para las listas de los más vendidos son las que provienen de cadenas minoristas, librerías en línea y librerías independientes. Por lo tanto, si realiza una venta masiva a una corporación o vende toneladas de libros desde el fondo de la sala cuando habla, no se contarán a menos que estén hechos por uno de los grupos mencionados anteriormente.

Oportunidades especiales

Las noticias de negocios siempre están de última hora. En áreas como la crianza de los hijos, los estilos de vida, el entretenimiento, la comida e incluso los deportes, las noticias pueden ser lentas. Sin embargo, las noticias de negocios nunca se detienen; rara vez se ralentiza. Por lo tanto, los autores de negocios deben posicionarse para aprovechar los desarrollos tan pronto como ocurran en sus áreas de especialización.

El libro de Bill George, Authentic Leadership (Jossey-Bass, 2004), destaca su experiencia en buen gobierno corporativo y pago de los directores ejecutivos. Su campaña publicitaria se centró en sus altos estándares éticos e ideas visionarias. Cuando el ex director de la Bolsa de Valores de Nueva York, Richard Grasso, fue criticado, los medios de comunicación recurrieron a George como experto en el comportamiento ético de los directores ejecutivos. George dio entrevistas que generaron más entrevistas y recibió una gran publicidad, lo que impulsó las ventas de su libro.

Los autores de negocios también deben anticipar las noticias futuras para programar sus libros y esfuerzos publicitarios en torno a los próximos ciclos que cubrirán los medios. Si tiene un libro sobre búsqueda de empleo o asesoramiento profesional, asegúrese de que su libro se publique durante abril o mayo para vincularlo con el ciclo de graduación anual que sigue. Todos los años, antes de la graduación, los medios de comunicación publican historias sobre cómo encontrar trabajo y establecer carreras. Anticipándose a los patrones de los medios, los autores de libros sobre estos temas pueden ponerse a disposición de los medios como expertos. Pueden obtener una gran publicidad para ellos mismos y sus libros dando a los medios de comunicación explicaciones, puntos de vista y citas sobre carreras. La asistencia que brindan a los medios puede dar sus frutos en otras épocas del año cuando los medios necesitan expertos que los ayuden con noticias sobre trabajos y carreras.

Ciudades de origen

Todos los autores deben aprovechar la atención especial que pueden obtener de los medios de comunicación en sus lugares de origen. Para los autores de negocios, eso significa desarrollar fuertes lazos con los editores y reporteros de negocios de sus periódicos locales y revistas de negocios. Vale la pena que los autores construyan bases sólidas en su ciudad natal porque los lugareños se enorgullecen del éxito de otros locales y ayudan a promoverlos.

Cuando se trata de la cobertura local, los autores de negocios tienen la ventaja de tener más medios donde pueden hablar que otros autores. Pueden hablar en las cámaras de comercio; en clubes de servicio como Rotary, Kiwanis y Elks Clubs; ya los grupos empresariales locales. Los autores de negocios deben aprovechar estas oportunidades para construir una base sólida de hablantes locales y un sólido apoyo de base.

Crédito adicional

Escriba biografías y materiales promocionales que construyan su credibilidad. En la biografía, destaca los logros que más se relacionan con tu libro. Los lectores y los medios quieren saber que tiene credenciales sobresalientes. Hará que la información y los consejos de su libro tengan más autoridad.

Los materiales de prensa de Authentic Leadership de Bill George señalaron que George era miembro de la Asociación Nacional de Directores Corporativos (NACD). Sin embargo, destacó que había sido nombrado Director Corporativo del Año por la NACD. Los medios se dieron cuenta de este punto y con frecuencia se refirieron a George como el ex director corporativo del año de la NACD.

Modifique las biografías para enfatizar la experiencia del autor en las áreas en las que los contactos individuales de los medios están más interesados. Adapte los comunicados de prensa y otros materiales promocionales para que también destaquen la experiencia de los autores en las mismas áreas.

Los autores de negocios también deben utilizar sus contactos en los medios. A lo largo de los años, la mayoría de los autores de negocios, especialmente aquellos que son líderes empresariales, hacen amplios contactos con los medios. Para promocionar sus libros, deben comunicarse con sus contactos en los medios. Cuando los miembros de los medios cubren historias, tienen el poder de determinar la dirección y el tenor de la pieza. Por lo tanto, usar sus conexiones personales puede brindarle una cobertura favorable.

Es una buena idea cultivar contactos con los medios mucho antes de que salga su libro. Como sugerimos, conviértase en un recurso de los medios: alimente las historias, la información y las fuentes de los medios; escribir artículos de autor; y ofrezca su experiencia como voluntario. Entonces, cuando necesites la ayuda de esos contactos, tu relación se habrá establecido y no tendrás que empezar de cero.

Camisetas CAMISETAS SIN MANGAS Echa un vistazo a nuestra variedad de camisetas de equipos de fútbol. Camisetas de entreno y partido de clubes nacionales y selecciones internacionales.